Chapter 3: Teaching All Learners

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Diversity and special education

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Chapter 3: Teaching All Learners

  1. 1. Chapter 3Accepting Responsibility for the Learning of All Students Based on: Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction, by Rosenberg, Westling, and McLeskey (second edition) and adapted from PowerPoint created by the National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities.
  2. 2. Chapter 3 Questions• What is “disproportionality” and why is it important?• How can we explain discrepancies in educational outcomes for children?• What is the demographic divide and why is it important?• What do successful teachers believe and do to enhance the educational futures of all children?
  3. 3. What is Disproportionality? % of students of a specific ethnicity or race Overrepresentation In special education In school’s populationRosenberg/Westling/McLeskey Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. What is Disproportionality? % of students of a specific ethnicity or race Underrepresentation In special education In school’s populationRosenberg/Westling/McLeskey Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. StatisticsAfrican-American childrenand American Indians/Alaskan natives areoverrepresented inintellectual disability, learningdisabilities, and emotional/behavior disorder categories.Rosenberg/Westling/McLeskey Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Statistics African-American and Hispanic students with disabilities are more likely to be educated in separate special education classrooms or schools than European American students.Rosenberg/Westling/McLeskey Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Statistics In schools with predominantly European American populations, disproportionate ly high numbers of minority students tend to be placed in special education.Rosenberg/Westling/McLeskey Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. Why Does Disproportionality Occur?• Failure to educate children from diverse backgrounds in general ed.• Lack of access to effective instruction• Under-prepared teachers• Insufficient resources• Poverty• Demographic divide between teachers and students• MisidentificationRosenberg/Westling/McLeskey Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. IDEA 2004• States must monitor levels of disproportionality.• If disproportionality occurs, districts must: • Review and revise (if appropriate) policies and procedures used in identification and placement • Use 15% of Part B funds for early intervening servicesRosenberg/Westling/McLeskey Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. Perceived “Normal” Student Behavior• Takes turns speaking• Deferential to adults• Sit and listen for extended periods of time• Looks teacher in the eye when reprimanded• Uses standard grammar and pronunciation
  11. 11. Teacher Perceptions of Difference• Students not behaving as expected by European American, middle-class teachers are more likely to be referred to special ed.• Cultural differences may cause educators to inaccurately judge students as poorly behaved or disrespectful.• Teachers my misinterpret typical second language acquisition as disability or may fail to perceive a disability.
  12. 12. Culturally Relevant Teaching• Know yourself and culture’s role in perception• Learn about students’ backgrounds, experiences• Learn not to judge• Include materials that reflect students’ culture• Relate instruction to interests, experiences, families, and cultureRosenberg/Westling/McLeskey Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. Culturally Relevant Teaching • Develop a vision of students who succeed • Have high expectations for achievement and behavior • Focus instruction on strengths while building capacity in weaker areas • Support students until they succeed • Create a sense of community • Equity = caring = meeting needsRosenberg/Westling/McLeskey Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Special Education for Today’s Teachers: An Introduction All Rights Reserved

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