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  • I am Mr. Ferdinand Bulusan of Cagayan State University, Cagayan Valley, Philippines. I teach professional education subjects and I am currently writing a book on Principles and Strategies of Teaching. As I see it, your slide presentation is of great helpfor me in teaching and in writing. May I humbly request that you send me a copy of this to my email add fgbulusan_gmail@yahoo.com? Rest assured, due credit will be accorded to you, sir. thank you in advance
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  2. 3. TEACHER PLANNING <ul><li>Average amount of planning time after school hours is 76 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Average time teachers spend planning during the summer is 59 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest obstacles to planning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>insufficient time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of materials and activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of knowledge concerning students abilities and academic history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenz, Deshler, and Schumaker (1990) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. PHYSICAL ARRANGEMENTS <ul><li>Arrangement of students </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement of special area centers </li></ul>
  4. 5. Arrangement of Students <ul><li>Arrange students so that they can easily see and hear teacher presentations. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange students so that the teacher has easy access to any student. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange students so that the teacher easily sees the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide whether desks are to be arranged in clusters or rows. </li></ul><ul><li>Place difficult-to-teach or off-task students in the middle of the room near the front. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Arrangement of Materials <ul><li>Keep frequently used materials easily accessible. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that high-traffic areas are free of congestion. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Arrangement of Special Areas and Centers <ul><li>Academic Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Student Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Audiovisual Area </li></ul>
  7. 8. Instructional Arrangements <ul><li>Large Group Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Small Group Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>One student with Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Helpers with Student </li></ul><ul><li>Students Teaching Students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer Tutoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classwide Peer Tutoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Material with Student </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Correcting Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Large Group Instruction <ul><li>If the teacher uses effective presentation strategies such as demonstration, modeling, and guided practice and supplements them with cooperative learning, small group instruction, follow-up direct instruction, or engaging seatwork activities, large group instruction can be effective for teaching academics and social skills to students with diverse needs. </li></ul><ul><li>In a response to intervention (RTI) framework, much of the Tier I instruction is provided in a large-group format. </li></ul>
  9. 10. LARGE GROUP INSTRUCTION <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is time-efficient. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are prepared for lecture-type of instruction in postsecondary and secondary settings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General and special educators who co-teach may share the responsibilities of teaching the large group. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. LARGE GROUP INSTRUCTION <ul><li>Disadvantages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It does not allow for the teacher to deal easily with the diverse abilities and skills levels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions may go unanswered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distracted students may remain off-task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students who need more intensive instruction may fail to receive it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For high-ability students, large-group instruction frequently moves too slowly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For low-ability students, it usually moves too quickly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral problems are likely to result because of boredom or frustration. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Guidelines for Large Group Instruction <ul><li>Keep instruction short </li></ul><ul><li>Use questions to involve students in the lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Use lecture-pause routines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RAP Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourage active participation among lower performing students while maintaining the involvement of higher achieving students. </li></ul>
  12. 13. GUIDELINES FOR LARGE GROUP INSTRUCTION (continued) <ul><li>Use visual aids to promote understanding of lecture material. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a lively pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the rules for behavior during presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the rules for behavior during discussions. </li></ul><ul><li>If students misbehave, praise students who follow the rules. </li></ul>
  13. 14. GUIDELINES FOR LARGE GROUP INSTRUCTION (continued) <ul><li>Use flexible grouping. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important aspect of RTI Tier 2 instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use participation buddies to promote student involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Use response cards to promote participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Ask, Pause, and Call. </li></ul><ul><li>Use signals to avoid surprise call-ons. </li></ul>
  14. 15. SMALL GROUP INSTRUCTION <ul><li>Typically consists of 3-7 students </li></ul><ul><li>Especially recommended for students with learning problems </li></ul><ul><li>Tier 2 instruction in an RTI model </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to group students who have similar instructional needs in a specific academic area. </li></ul>
  15. 16. SMALL GROUP INSTRUCTION <ul><li>Advantages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are able to participate more during instruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers are able to provide more instruction, praise, feedback. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are able to progress at their own rates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small-group instruction typically is less boring. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers using small-group instruction are able to monitor the progress of students better and make teaching modifications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small-group instruction provides students with language differences with a more comfortable setting for participating and asking for clarification. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. SMALL GROUP INSTRUCTION <ul><li>Advantages (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The small-group arrangement is especially important for students with learning and behavioral problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A small-group follow-up can be helpful to students who do not learn sufficiently during large-group teacher presentations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small-group instruction may have an advantage over one-on-one instruction because a student with learning problems, may, through observation, learn a skill that is being taught to another group member. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small group settings provide the opportunity to increase the intensity of intervention for students who have moved to Tier 2 in an RTI model. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. SMALL GROUP INSTRUCTION <ul><li>Disadvantages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students are required to do more seatwork. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers must do more planning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers must organize more instructional variables (such as grouping students, managing transitions, monitoring seatwork activities for students when they are not in their small group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers must provide more instruction in the respective academic or content area. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. GUIDELINES FOR SMALL-GROUP INSTRUCTION <ul><li>Establish rules for small-group instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the groups as homogeneous as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain flexible groupings. </li></ul><ul><li>Locate the small group in an area that allows the teacher to scan the entire class. </li></ul><ul><li>Place the students in a semicircle so that their shoulders align with the shoulders of the students beside them. </li></ul><ul><li>Use motivation activities during small-group work. </li></ul>
  19. 20. One Student with Teacher <ul><li>Used to help student with learning problems learn a new skill </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for students who are learning skills that are different from rest of the class </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to intensify interventions in Tier 2 or Tier 3 of RTI framework </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used spontaneously with group methods of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>3-5 minutes is just the amount of time needed to help a student understand a concept, receive correct feedback, understand directions, and feel motivated to continue working. </li></ul>
  20. 21. ADULT HELPERS WITH STUDENTS <ul><li>Paraprofessionals and volunteers provide a powerful resource for increasing engaged learning time of students with learning and behavioral problems. </li></ul>
  21. 22. PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING PARAPROFESSIONAL PROGRAMS <ul><li>Roles of paraprofessionals </li></ul><ul><li>Training paraprofessionals </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Working with culturally and linguistically diverse students </li></ul>
  22. 23. STUDENTS TEACHING STUDENTS: Peer Tutoring <ul><li>Programming Guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine goals of peer tutoring. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target skills or content for the peer tutoring pairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design procedures for tutor and tutee. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign tutor-tutee pairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train tutors. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. STUDENTS TEACHING STUDENTS: Peer Tutoring <ul><li>Programming Guidelines (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Train tutees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach social skills used in peer tutoring. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule the peer-tutoring sessions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct a tutoring session. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the peer-tutoring program. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. STUDENTS TEACHING STUDENTS: Classwide Peer Tutoring <ul><li>Programming Guidelines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide social skills training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partner Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paragraph Shrinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction Relay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For lower level skills such as spelling or math facts, use scoring similar to basketball </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign each pair of students to one of two class teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use classwide peer tutoring 2-3 times per week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid long-term pairing of students who do not get along with each other. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. STUDENTS TEACHING STUDENTS: Cooperative Learning <ul><li>Programming Guidelines : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine goals of cooperative learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target selected skills or contingent lessons for the teams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select materials, including the quizzes or tournament questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design procedures for team members to help one another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign students of varying achievement levels to the same teams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train teams to help one another. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. STUDENTS TEACHING STUDENTS: Cooperative Learning <ul><li>Programming Guidelines (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach social skills for teamwork. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review classroom rules and teach new rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule the cooperative learning sessions for 3-5 days a week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct a cooperative learning session. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the cooperative learning program. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. STUDENTS TEACHING STUDENTS: Cooperative Learning <ul><li>Guidelines to ensure the success of students with learning problems when implementing cooperative learning techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate teacher or peer support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select group members carefully. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor student progress using formative assessment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make certain the student with learning disabilities has a role conducive to learning. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. MATERIAL WITH STUDENT: Seatwork Activities <ul><li>Learning Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides student with opportunities to practice skills that the teacher has presented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows teacher some freedom to work with small groups or individual students </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. MATERIAL WITH STUDENT: Seatwork Activities <ul><li>Guidelines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the independent work assignments are tailored to the student’s instructional level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a variety of independent seatwork activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider work folders for daily assignments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare some cushion activities to accommodate students finishing their work at different times. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. MATERIAL WITH STUDENT: Seatwork Activities <ul><li>Guidelines (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify the format of worksheets to improve learner friendliness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design procedures that enable students to ask questions while doing independent seatwork. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that students understand the instructions for their seatwork activities before staring small-group instruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the direct instruction teaching sequence to teach the behavioral expectations for independent seatwork. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. MATERIAL WITH STUDENT: Self-Correcting Materials <ul><li>Examples of Feedback Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stylus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching Cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer on Back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strips on Folder </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. MATERIAL WITH STUDENT: Instructional Games <ul><li>Simple Board Game </li></ul><ul><li>Mystery Detective </li></ul>
  33. 34. MATERIAL WITH STUDENT: Technological Tools <ul><li>Guidelines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the evidence base on the specific technology. (Blackhurst, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological tool should be selected based on alignment with curriculum outcomes. (King-Sears & Evmenova, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological tool should match student needs. This is particular true when selecting assistive technologies for students with disabilities. An assistive technology is a tool that aids a student in meeting his or her IEP goals. (Blackhurst, 2005) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. MATERIAL WITH STUDENT: Homework <ul><li>Assign a reasonable amount of homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Make homework an integral part of the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan homework assignments at the student’s instructional level. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the student understands the assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce the completion of homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve parents in homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate homework through effective support systems. </li></ul>
  35. 36. GENERAL SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>Schedule for maximum instructional time. </li></ul><ul><li>Proceed from short work assignments to longer ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate highly preferred with less preferred tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a daily schedule for each student. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule assignments that can be completed in a school day. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide time cues. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule activities in a complementary manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan a variety of activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider alternative schedules. </li></ul>
  36. 37. SCHEDULING AT THE ELEMENTARY LEVEL <ul><li>Analyze the day’s events. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan opening exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule academic instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Plan closing exercises </li></ul>
  37. 38. SCHEDULING AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL <ul><li>Class periods are about 50 minutes. Planning is essential to ensure efficient use of instructional time. </li></ul><ul><li>General scheduling considerations can be used with adolescents with learning problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If there is flexibility in scheduling electives, students can select courses in which they have a good opportunity to succeed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A course load must reflect student needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded course offerings are used in some settings to accommodate the student with learning problems. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. SCHEDULING IN THE RESOURCE ROOM <ul><li>Issues that complicate scheduling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The student’s academic, emotional, and social needs must be considered when determining the best time to schedule resource room instruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom teachers usually have preferred times for sending students to the resource room. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students who come to the resource room at a specified time may have different instructional needs. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. SCHEDULING IN THE RESOURCE ROOM <ul><li>Issues (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In some situations, it is helpful if the resource room teacher teaches in the general education class setting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The resource room teacher must schedule time for conferring with classroom teachers. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. SCHEDULING IN THE RESOURCE ROOM <ul><li>Helpful Techniques and Suggestions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students may come to the resource room at different times, depending on the day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide instruction in the various academic areas at fixed times during the day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage and reinforce being on time and making a quick transition from task to task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When they return from the resource room, give students an assignment to work on until the general education teacher can involve them in the ongoing activities. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. CLASSROOM EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Instructional equipment can be used to meet the specific needs of students with learning problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape recorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overhead projector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small-Item materials: miniature chalkboard, flannelboard, game materials, construction materials, typewriter, stopwatch, durable coverings, magnetic board, tracing screen, mirror </li></ul></ul>