5 FACTORS AFFECTING
WAN FARAH AFIFAH BINTI WAN MAIDIN
• Aptitude refers to the special ability involved
in second language learning (Douglous et al
• The relationship between aptitude and second
language learning success is a very important
one and various studies, such as Gardner (1980)
and Skehan (1989) have reported that aptitude
is a major factor determining the level of
success of second language learning (Douglous
et al 1995).
• Some individuals may have strong memories but
only average abilities in the other components
of aptitude (Spada 1999).
• A motivated student can be defined as someone
who: "Expends effort, is persistent and
attentive to the tasks at hand, has goals,
desires and aspirations, enjoys the activity,
makes attributions concerning success or
failure, is aroused and makes use of strategies
to aid in achieving goals (Dornyei 2003).
• If students feel that they are not going to need
the language in their lives, students may not be
motivated and attitudes toward learning that
language may be negative (Gass et al 1993).
• The relationship between language learners’
proficiency and their use of strategy use as
well and found that students’ self-rating of
proficiency levels was closely linked to their
use of language learning strategies (Oxford and
• Language teachers could help less successful
learners to promote their language
proficiency by paying more attention to
productive language learning strategies (Rubin
• Particular strategies are often chosen because
they are compatible with a students culturally
influenced learning style (Oxford and Nyikos
• In a study conducted by Politzer
(1983), Hispanics were found to use mainly social
• Introverts use metacognitive strategies more
frequently whereas extroverts prefer to use
social strategies (Ehrman & Oxford 1990 ).
• Learners who prefer to study in groups use
social and interactive strategies (Rossi-Le 1995).