• Female learners used LLS more compared to male learners. ( Ehrman & Oxford 1989; Green & Oxford 1995; Politzer 1983 )• Female learners usually used metacognitive strategies while male learners preferred to use cognitive strategies. (Bacon 1992 )• Female learners used Classroom LLS, Out-of- Class LLS and Exam LLS more compared to male learners.• Female teachers often become positive role model for female students, but not for male students. (Cross 1983)
• Those who had been learning language longer used more LLS compared to those who had learned recently. ( Ehrman 1990 )• Beginner learners use cognitive strategies more while higher level learners are using conclusion making strategies. (Chamot & Kupper 1987 )• Those who study language for 4 or 5 years will use communication strategies more significantly & frequently compared to those who study language less than 4 years. ( Oxford & Nyikos 1989 )
• Definition : The extent to which an individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity. ( Gardner 1985 )• Three main component in the definition are motivational intensity, desire to learn the language, and an attitude towards the act of learning the language.
• Gardner & Lambert (1972) divided motivation into 2; integrative and instrumental motivations.• Integrative motivation refers to the positive attitudes that the learners had to the elements in the target language.• Instrumental motivation refers when the learners are studying the target language to reach his goals other than integration goal.
• Parents play a big role in their children’s learning process. (Ballantine 1993; Musgrave 1974; Trusty 1998)• Those who came from high socioecomonic status have more cognition intelligence compared to those who came from low socioeconomic status.• In deciding the socioeconomic status, two main elements that been referred are parents’ academic background & the family’s revenue.
Parents’ Academic Background• Parents with higher academic background will ensure their children to have mental & physical preparation to help the physiology & cognitive growth. (Salvin 1997)• Learners with educated parents frequently used Out-of-Class LLS and Exam LLS compared to other groups.
Family’s Revenue• Parents that have stable financial source is able to provide support to their children’s learning process.• Learners from higher revenue family used more LLS such as cognitive, metacognitve and compensation strategies compared to those who come from families with lower revenue.
• Children from immigrant families can speak in the new language more fluently compared to their parents.• Learner’s age is one of the important factors that influence the language learning process. (Lightbown & Spada 2003)• Although the learning progress of adult learners are faster than young learners, at the end, younger learners are able to achieve the same skills as the native speakers of the target language has which is rarely happen to adult learners.
• Ehrman & Oxford (1995) finds that young learners use various strategies that is easy & simple compared to adult learners that use more advanced strategies.• Young learners learns the language naturally while the adult learners learn it in the classroom.