Hazards: Earthquakes<br />By Alexei John Acacio<br />
What is an Earthquake?<br />An earthquake is a sudden shaking of the earth’s crust.<br />There are a few million that occur every year; however, only 150 will cause significant damage.<br />Earthquakes are measured in magnitudes on the Richter Scale. The higher the magnitude, the greater the intensity of the earthquake is. <br />
What causes Earthquakes?<br />Plate Margins<br />Moving of plate margins can cause earthquakes.<br />Happens in all types of plate margins: most common in conservative and convergent boundaries. <br />Volcanic<br />Volcanic Eruptions can cause the ground to shake due to the energy it releases. This causes earthquakes.<br />
What places are at risk?<br />This map shows places in the world where earthquakes are most likely to occur.<br />
Why are Earthquakes a Hazard?<br />Earthquakes cause damage to:<br />Humans<br />Structures<br />Economies<br />
How do Earthquakes affect humans?<br />Earthquakes destroy buildings and other structures<br />Humans may get injured or die. <br />There will be damage to cities.<br />Earthquakes disrupt important utilities such as water and electricity.<br />
Case Study: 2010 Haiti Earthquake<br />Haiti sits on a fault line between the North American and Caribbean Plate. <br />This has led to Haiti being prone to major Earthquakes. <br />On January 12, 2010 a major earthquake struck Haiti, killing 250,000. <br />To this day, Haiti is still suffering the effects.<br />1.2 million Haitians are still living in tents, despite the earthquake happening nearly a year ago. <br />Infrastructure has yet to be rebuilt. <br />
How do Earthquakes affect economies?<br />Earthquakes disrupt trade and causes billions of dollars in structural damage. <br />E.g. Haiti has yet to recover from the recent 2010 Earthquake. The economy has suffered extremely due to loss of important infrastructure. <br />
How do Earthquakes damage structures?<br />The foundations of buildings and other structures are weakened or destroyed by Earthquakes. <br />This may cause them to collapse, or be declared unfit for human occupancy. <br /> Hundreds of buildings in Haiti collapsed. <br />
How do we prepare for Earthquakes?<br />Countries employ building codes<br />These require structures to be able to withstand major Earthquakes.<br />In Haiti’s case, the code was not properly enforced.<br />Earthquake warning systems<br />These predict earthquakes, and tells the public to prepare. <br />Preparedness<br />Things individuals can do to help them survive in the event of an earthquake<br />Make sure there are no heavy objects that can fall.<br />Know emergency numbers<br />Ensure that your house will not collapse in the event of an earthquake. Make an engineer check your house’s foundation regularly.<br />
What do we do during earthquakes?<br />Hide under furniture to ensure that objects don’t fall directly on you.<br /> Immediately vacate the building upon the conclusion of the tremor. The building may not withstand aftershocks. <br />Turn off electrical appliances to prevent a fire.<br />
What happens after Earthquakes?<br />Emergency services may not be able to respond immediately. Instead international help may arrive.<br />E.g. Haiti’s emergency service system was not able to cope with the disaster. The United Nations and other countries sent humanitarian workers to help the victims. <br />
And some final thoughts…<br />Earthquakes are not man caused. The best way to prevent the negative effects is to be PREPARED.<br />
Bibliography<br />"Age of the Earth." University of Oregon. Web. 03 Dec. 2010. <http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/lectures/age_of_the_earth/age_of_the_earth.html>.<br />"BrainPOP | Science | Learn about Earthquakes." BrainPOP. Web. 02 Dec. 2010. <http://www.brainpop.com/science/earthsystem/earthquakes/>.<br />Earthquake Early Warning from Seismic Warning Systems - Home. Web. 03 Dec. 2010. <http://www.seismicwarning.com/>.<br />"Haiti Still Suffering Six Months on from Earthquake - Telegraph." Telegraph Online. 09 July 2010. Web. 03 Dec. 2010.<br />Polyné, Millery. "Haiti earthquake of 2010." World Book Student. World Book, 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. <br />"The Psychology of Suffering: How We Cope With Cosmic Evil | Psychology Today." Psychology Today: Health, Help, Happiness Find a Therapist. Web. 03 Dec. 2010. <http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evil-deeds/201001/the-psychology-suffering-how-we-cope-cosmic-evil>.<br />Stock, Joann. "Earthquake." World Book Student. World Book, 2010. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. <br />"What Causes an Earthquake?" The Geography Site. Web. 02 Dec. 2010. <http://www.geography-site.co.uk/pages/physical/earth/cause.html>.<br />
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