Learning to learn as professionalising pedagogy
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Learning to learn as professionalising pedagogy

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Round table presented (with Marieke van Roy) to the EARLI SIG14 annual conference. Antwerp, Belgium, 22–24 August 2012.

Round table presented (with Marieke van Roy) to the EARLI SIG14 annual conference. Antwerp, Belgium, 22–24 August 2012.

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Learning to learn as professionalising pedagogy Learning to learn as professionalising pedagogy Presentation Transcript

  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 1Learning to learn as professionalising pedagogyHow can teachers learn to support self-organising learning?EARLI SIG 14 (Learning and professional development) round tableUniversity of Antwerp, Belgium, 22–24 August 2012Ernst D. Thoutenhoofd & Marieke van RoyWith contributions by Chawwah Groothuis, Annet Sikkens and Jorien VugteveenThis slideshow is publicly available at slideshare.net/ernstt
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | Educational freedom is not about the absence of authoritybut about authority that carries an orientation towards freedom with it. Gert Biesta 2008
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 3[1] Problem definition[2] Notes on concepts and related research[3] Our study[4] First conclusions[5] Round table questions View slide
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 4Learning to learn is the ability to pursue and persist inlearning, to organise ones own learning, including through effectivemanagement of time and information, both individually and in groups.This competence includes awareness of ones learning process andneeds, identifying available opportunities, and the ability to overcomeobstacles in order to learn successfully. […] Learning to learn engageslearners to build on prior learning and life experiences in order to useand apply knowledge and skills in a variety of contexts […] Motivationand confidence are crucial to an individuals competence.European Parliament (2006/962, §5) View slide
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 5Unfortunately the EU’s definition confuses process and outcome:before learners can organise their learning, they need tolearn from and with others how to organise their learning.We conceive of this emancipatory process aslearning to learn. In schools, collective learning is organised aroundformal teaching, which imposes structure and targets on learning.
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 6The problem is that currently neither education nor teaching areoriented towards self-organising learning—on the contrary...The competence to plan and undertake one’s own learningwould itself need to become a main goal of formal education.But this presupposes that teachers have the competence to teachlearners how to become independent learners who can plan andundertake their own learning.The combination of teaching and learning competence is what we meanto address through a professionalising pedagogy of learning.
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 7Here is a reminder about the need for research into learning to learn:‘It was not a pleasure to become aware that I was constantly askingmyself what I should do to satisfy the lecturer. What I did, was thatenough for him? What I wanted, would he agree with me? But he kepton stating that I could do whatever I thought was needed. I realizedthat after many years of education I had apparently learnt to pleaseteachers… Why is it so difficult for me to count on my own experiencesand knowledge?’Posting to a master-level course blog, 2011 (name withdrawn)
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 8[1] Problem definition[2] Notes on concepts and related research[3] Our study[4] First conclusions[5] Round table questions
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 9[2.1] Self-organisation is a term we use to denote apersistent process such as learning that is autonomous, operationallyclosed and based on non-intentional principles of sociality. We considerlearning ‘self-organising’ when it does not depend on theexternal authority of formal teaching.Self-organisation (or autopoiesis) was the term used by Humberto Maturana & Francisco Varela in 1972 to describe thestructural integration of mechanism and function in living systems.
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 10[2.2] A different explanans of teaching arisesfrom monological and dialogical paradigms of autopoietic learning.When learning is taken to be an neurocognitive (monologic) event, itfollows that teaching is an externally imposed factor in relation to‘sociobiological’ learning systems.When considered a discursive (dialogic) event, teaching mayalternatively be conceived an internal enabling condition of ‘culturalchain’ learning systems.Cf Wegeriff 2005
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 11[2.3] Our study borrows from the Learning to learn (L2L) project of theBritish Campaign for learning, which defined learning to learn as ‘aprocess of discovery about learning […] At its heart is the belief thatlearning is learnable’.• The project ran from 2000-2010• 40 schools across the UK participated (nonprobability sample)• Projects and reporting done by teachers, in public (Stenhouse 1981)• Effects relate to skills and dispositions, not academic achievementWall et al. 2010. Study carried out by the Centre for Learning and Teaching (CfLaT), University of Newcastle upon Tyne (Dir.David Leat). See the project website at the Campaign for Learning, www.campaign-for-learning.org.uk/cfl/learninginschools
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 12[2.4] Related findings emerged from another British study (40 schoolsin 4 LEAs) called Learning how to learn, one strand of which focussedon teachers developing ‘LHTL’ practices. Successful teachers:• Adopt substantive beliefs (act in the ‘spirit’ of LHTL, not the letter)• Demonstrate a capacity for strategic and reflective thinking• Engage in collaborative enquiry (learning from research and practice)• Benefit from supportive organisational structuresJames & McCormick 2009. Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council ‘Teaching & Learning Research Programme’(TLRP) that ran from 1999–2009. LHTL was a collaborative project carried out by the Institute of Education, the Open Universityand King’s College London.
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 13[1] Problem definition[2] Notes on concepts and related research[3] Our study: a teacher research network on thinking and learning[4] First conclusions[5] Round table questions
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 14Our research network aims at teacher professionalisation by invitingteachers to experiment with thinking and learning in their teaching.The network promotes the teaching ofthinking and learning to learn skills.It is a multi-methods, voluntary participation study in which teachers collaboratewith university staff and students through master projects.10 teachers (7 institutions) and 6 pg students, 2011-2012
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 15Participants subscribe to three shared objectives:1. professionalise and innovate teaching through thinking and learning to learn practice2. carry out research (collect data, etc) in a scientifically sound manner3. publicly report findings and discuss results with othersAn overall aim is to enhance our collective understanding of thinkingand learning skills in education.
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 16Teachers design and plan small interventions alongside masterstudents, who research the ambitions and corresponding activities andreport their findings. We do not impose methods but encourage goodresearch practice and instruments, e.g.• ILS—Inventory of Learning Styles; Jan Vermunt a.o. [1]• ICALT—International Comparative Analysis of Learning and Teaching didactic skills questionnaires and observation schemes; Wim vd Grift a.o. [2][1] Scaled questionnaires available for learners in primary, secondary/tertiary and higher education. The HE version also has anEnglish translation. [2] Secondary only; Dutch only. Observers require prior training by UOCG.
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 17For Dutch speakers there is a project website atwww.rug.nl/pedok/onderzoek/denken_leren/
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 18In year 1 (2011-2012) the network included 7 studies:De Steiger * a SEN school for learning-disabled children aged 4-20WSNS Salland a bi-weekly class for high-ability pupils in a regional network of 35 primary schoolsNoordoost polder one teacher joining two primary schools in a projectIselinge a primary education teacher training collegeNoorderpoort a cluster of professional education colleges [1]PAMAOK003 * a course of the master in educational sciencesSPO * an HE access course for teachers* Results now available.[1] This project was a preliminary study carried out by 2x2 Bachelor students.
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 |Question Does coaching teachers lead to more effective use of thinking skills questioning by teachers and more initiative by pupils?Conclusion The coaching conversations did not lead to changed classroom practice. They did affect the professional attitude, particularly in relation to enabling pupils to practice their thinking skills and enabling feedback.De SteigerAnnet Sikkens (MA)
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 |Question What effect does assessment for learning (AfL) have on the learning styles of students and the inquiring attitude of the lecturer?Conclusion AfL positively contributed to the autonomy of students (yet also made them more hesitant) and to the inquiring attitude of the lecturer.PAMAOK003Jorien Vugteveen (MA)
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 |Question What effect does assessment for learning (AfL) have on the learning of students and lecturer?Conclusion AfL promoted an inquiring attitude in the lecturer. AfL positively affected the learning styles of students. AfL extended the learning ability of students. AfL positively affected the learnability of content.SPOChawwah Groothuis
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 22[1] Problem definition[2] Notes on concepts and related research[3] Our study[4] First conclusions[5] Round table questions
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 23A plenary discussion of first-year findings with schools, teachers andstudents has led to some first shared conclusions. For example:• Teachers and lecturers working ‘shoulder to shoulder’ with university students on innovating teaching impressed schools most.• Learning to learn places considerable demands on teachers’ inquiring attitude and willingness to take risks with their classes.• Beliefs about learning to learn seem to draw primarily on teachers’ and students’ own experiences as learners.
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 24‘It is definitely motivating to be able to learn what you want, but it isalso a bit scary. Because what do I want to learn?? Now we have tothink about our own learning, instead of just following the curriculum.Which also means, indeed, you have to be motivated or else you won’tlearn. You cannot sit back for a couple of weeks and then, just beforethe exam, read a summary of the literature. Which you could, if you’renot motivated for a certain course but you still want to pass the exam.’ Posted by Brenda, a master student, on the course blog http://pamaok003.wordpress.com
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 25[1] Problem definition[2] Notes on concepts and related research[3] Our study[4] First conclusions[5] Round table questions (4)
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 26[5.1] DesignMost findings to date seem general rather than particular.How might we focus data and findings on the particular themes ofteaching thinking and learning to learn?
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 27[5.2] MethodsThe variety in institutional types of the network is, we think, good forthe validity of the research but detrimental for reliability.How might we optimise the reliability of the studies without resorting tostandardised quantitative methods or inhibit participation?
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 28[5.3] PracticeA noted issue is that teachers may ‘forget’ the research interventionand fall back into their habitual didactic routines.How might we balance teaching habits with research rigour?
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 29[5.4] Theory and ethicsThe many intentions and practices invested in the research networkraise issues about our own position and orientation as researchers.How might we actively pursue relevance and coherence (appliedscience), trace their emergence or shaping (phenomenology), andanalyse their co-construction (critical science), all at the same time?
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 30EndReferences on the next slide.
  • faculty of behavioural pedagogische wetenschappen and social sciences en onderwijskunde 23 August 2011 | 31Further readingBiesta, Gert (2008) Beyond learning: Democratic education for a human future. Paradigm Publishers.European Parliament (2006) Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning. Official Journal for the European Union 2006/962:L394/16.Grift, Wim van de (2007) Quality of teaching in four European countries: A review of the literature and application of an assessment instrument. Educational Research 49(2):127–152.James, Mary and Robert McCormick (2009) Teachers learning how to learn. Teaching and Teacher Education 25(7):973–982.Stenhouse, Lawrence (1981) What counts as research? British Journal of Educational Studies 29(2):103–114.Varela, Francisco and Humberto Maturana (1972) Mechanism and biological explanation. Philosophy of Science 39(3):378– 382.Vermunt, Jan D.H.M. (1987) Learning styles and self-regulation. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Washington, DC, April 20-24, 1987 (available through ERIC).Wall, K., Elaine Hall, Vivienne Baumfield, Steve Higgins, Victoria Rafferty, Richard Remedios, Ulrike Thomas, Licy Tiplady, Carl Towler and Pam Woolner (2010) Learning to learn in schools phase 4 and Learning to learn in further education. London: Campaign for Learning.Wegeriff, Rupert (2005) Reason and creativity in classroom dialogues. Language and Education 19(3):223–237