Therese kirkendall theory


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Therese kirkendall theory

  1. 1. EME 2040 Learning TheoryPresentation:Constructivism:A New WorldviewBy Therese KirkendallSpring 2012
  2. 2. MenuWhat:Constructivism: What is it?Who:Key figures: Jerome Bruner, John Dewey, Maria Montessori, DavidA. Kolb, Jean Piaget, Lev VygotskyHow:How it would be observed or used in the classroom (What wouldthe teachers do using this theory? What would the students do?)My Classroom:How the learning theory would fit into your classroom and yourphilosophy of education. Next
  3. 3. Constructivism What• Learning is a search for meaning. Therefore, learning must start with the issues around which students are actively trying to construct meaning.• Meaning requires understanding wholes as well as parts. And parts must be understood in the context of wholes. Therefore, the learning process focuses on primary concepts, not isolated facts.• In order to teach well, we must understand the mental models that students use to perceive the world and the assumptions they make to support those models.• The purpose of learning is for an individual to construct his or her own meaning, not just memorize the “right” answers and regurgitate someone else’s meaning. Since education is inherently interdisciplinary, the only valuable way to measure learning is to make the assessment part of the learning process, ensuring it provides students with information on the quality of their learning.(On Purpose Associates, 2011) Next
  4. 4. How Constructivism Impacts Learning• Curriculum–Constructivism calls for the elimination of a standardized curriculum. Instead, it promotes using curricula customized to the students’ prior knowledge. Also, it emphasizes hands-on problem solving.• Instruction–Under the theory of constructivism, educators focus on making connections between facts and fostering new understanding in students. Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses and encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information. Teachers also rely heavily on open-ended questions and promote extensive dialogue among students.• Assessment–Constructivism calls for the elimination of grades and standardized testing. Instead, assessment becomes part of the learning process so that students play a larger role in judging their own progress.(On Purpose Associates, 2011) Menu Next
  5. 5. Key TheoristJohn Dewey (1859-1952)• American psychologist, philosopher, educator, social critic and political activist• developer of the philosophy of pragmatism, “a movement consisting of varying but associated theories” “distinguished by the doctrine that the meaning of an idea or a proposition lies in its observable practical consequences” ((American Heritage Dictionary, 2011)• Graduate of University of Vermont, Ph.D. from John Hopkins University ((Field, 2005)• Taught at a high school, University of Michigan, University of Chicago, and Columbia University, where he retired from teaching in 1930 ((Field, 2005)• Significant works include: Logic: The Theory of Inquiry, Art as Experience, Freedom and Culture , Theory of Valuation, and Knowing and the Known ((Field, 2005) Next
  6. 6. Dewey’s Influence on Education• teaching and curriculum must be designed in ways that allow for individual differences• education should be designed on the basis of a theory of experience and its two central tenets -- continuity and interaction• Continuity refers to the notion that humans are sensitive to (or are affected by) experience• Interaction builds upon the notion of continuity and explains how past experience interacts with the present situation, to create ones present experience(Neill, 2005) Next
  7. 7. John Dewey’s Influence on Adult Education“An occupation is a continuous activity having a purpose. Educationthrough occupations consequently combines within itself more of thefactors conducive to learning than any other method.”“An occupation is the only thing which balances the distinctivecapacity of an individual with his social service. To find out what oneis fitted to do and to secure an opportunity to do it is the key tohappiness. Nothing is more tragic than failure to discover ones truebusiness in life, or to find that one has drifted or been forced bycircumstance into an uncongenial calling.“The only adequate training for occupations is training throughoccupations.”John Dewey. Democracy and Education. 1916 Menu Next
  8. 8. In the ClassroomIn the Classroom:• Students learn by doing: the student becomes more actively involved in the learning process than in traditional, didactic education• Learner based instead of teacher based• Learners learn to think critically and learn to build on what they already know.• The teacher’s role is facilitator, “experience provider”: arranges particular sets of experiences which are conducive towards particular educational goals.• Teachers encourage students to discover concepts by themselves. Next
  9. 9. Classroom Implications• The teacher provides the tools for games, simulations, role playing and research. Teachers also arrange for outside opportunities for real world experiences. • Technology can be used for online research, virtual field trips, projects, communication, tutorials, exams, and a multitude of other tools.• The students collaborate to utilize tools for projects, research and discovery. Collaboration involves conversation and learning from one another. • Technology provides an infinite number of tools to research and create projects and provides connection to not just the real world, but the whole world. Menu Next
  10. 10. In My ClassroomConstructivism in My Classroom• Knowledge and theory are reinforced by skills application in the clinical classroom.• Collaboration and teamwork are expected and encouraged .• Role playing, problem based learning and case based learning are methods utilized in the classroom.• These methods and tools are connected to real world situations.• Internships connect all classroom experiences with real world situations. Next
  11. 11. Constructivism and My Teaching Style• Adult Career and Technical Education existed before the Constructivist, Pragmatist or Experiential Learning theories, in the form of apprenticeships.• “Learning by doing” is an absolute essential in CTE.• Making connections between learning and the “real world” is another absolute essential in vocational education.• Constructivism and Experiential Learning fits both my learning style and my teaching style. I learn best by doing and teach better by guiding and facilitating my students and their learning experiences. Menu Next
  12. 12. ReferencesAmerican Heritage Dictionary. (2011). Pragmatism. Retrieved from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language:, R. (2005, July 14). John Dewey (1859—1952). Retrieved from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:, J. (2005, January 26). John Dewey, the Modern Father of Experiential Education. Retrieved from Wilderdom: Purpose Associates. (2011). Constructivism. Retrieved from Funderstanding: