faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                                  social sciences              educational scienc...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                               social sciences              educational sciences ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                               social sciences              educational sciences ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                                 social sciences              educational science...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                              social sciences              educational sciences  ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                                social sciences              educational sciences...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                              social sciences              educational sciences  ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                               social sciences              educational sciences ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                                social sciences              educational sciences...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                               social sciences              educational sciences ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                      social sciences              educational sciences          ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                              social sciences              educational sciences  ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                                social sciences              educational sciences...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                          social sciences              educational sciences      ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                          social sciences              educational sciences      ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                                    social sciences              educational scie...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                             social sciences              educational sciences   ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                               social sciences              educational sciences ...
faculty of behavioural and   pedagogy and                                          social sciences              educationa...
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The university as acoustic environment for learning

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Knot -Dickscheit, J. Thoutenhoofd, E.D., Hazekamp, J. and van den Dool, R. (2012) Results of the "Have you heard?" Groningen study. Qualitative research into the study-barriers and learning styles of hearing-disabled students in Higher Education. Presentation to the Arbeitsgruppe Empirische Sonderpädagogische Forschung (AESF) Frühjahrstagung. University of Oldenburg, Germany, 7 July.

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The university as acoustic environment for learning

  1. 1. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 1Results of the ‘Have you heard?’ Groningen studyQualitative research into the learning styles of students facing acoustic study-barriers in Higher EducationThis presentation is based on a master dissertation carried out by Jannie Hazekamp atGroningen UniversityJana Knot-Dickscheit, Ernst D. Thoutenhoofd & Jannie HazekampPresented to students at the University of Oldenburg, 6 July 2012
  2. 2. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 2ContentsResearch context Dutch national policy on access to higher education (HE) and the case-study of universities as acoustic environments. The project involves quantitative (N=9,800 students) and qualitative (N=5 students) research. This presentation reports initial findings of the qualitative case-study data, N=5 Groningen students.First results and recommendations Tentative finding There is correspondence between hearing-disabled students’ attitudes towards study and their learning styles; between learning environment and attending lectures; and between impairment and study delay. Key recommendation University study environments need to be made better listening environments for students facing barriers in hearing.
  3. 3. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 3Policy context: Access to higher education forfunctionally impaired students in the NetherlandsIn the Netherlands, new policy in relation to Higher Education accessarrangements (the ‘commissie Maatstaf’) has led to core university fundingbeing tied to universities demonstrably accounting for their accessprovisions, starting January 2012. The policy was a response to persistently lowparticipation rates found among disabled students in Dutch HE.However, no standards exist for determining the quality of access provisions.Furthermore, there is little detailed information on how many students with‘functional impairments’ (policy term) study at universities, how well they do, orwhether the student numbers involved approximate general incidence figuresreported in the general population.Our research aimed at the ‘case study’ of the university as acousticenvironment and the acoustic barriers that students may experience.
  4. 4. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 4Reasons for the research• Improvements in the pedagogical, audiological and medical care of learners facing issues with hearing are leading to an increase in the numbers of such students showing ambitions to study in higher education.• Providing access for these students is a relatively new challenge for universities.• Little research is available that distinguishes between hearing impairment, hyperacusis and tinnitus.• Prior collaboration between the Unversities of Oldenburg and Groningen led to shared research aimed at analysing ‘acoustic‘ barriers towards full participation by students at both universities.
  5. 5. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 5Initial survey + follow up interviewsIn 2011 a first online survey was carried out among around 90,000 students ofthe universities of Oldenburg and Groningen, and the University of AppliedSciences in Utrecht. Some 9,800 students responded to the survey.The survey included a battery of standard questionnaires in relation to hearing-impairment, tinnitus and hyperacusis, as well as questions about how studentsexperience the acoustic environment of the university, and questions about theirstudy.In a subsequent round, one Groningen master in education studies studentundertook a quantitative analysis of the dataset, while another undertook follow-up interviews with a selection of students who had completed the survey.This presentation reports the results from the follow-up interviews.
  6. 6. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 6Aims of the follow-up interviewsInvestigate study-barriers and coping styles of hearing-disabled students atGroningen University who have a:• hearing impairment (a loss of hearing); or• tinnitus (persistent perception of sounds that are not present); or• hyperacusis (an oversensitivity to sound)Please noteDeaf students who access study via sign language interpreting require linguisticaccess (translation, notetaking and interpreting services), which is a whollydifferent matter from the acoustic access that is the topic here; these studentsand their support requirements are not addressed here.
  7. 7. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 7Research questionsWhat interaction is there between the learning styles of hearing-disabledstudents, characteristics of their impairment, the study environment and studysupport?Subsidiary questionsWhat does the study-environment offer by way of support in the contact ofhearing-disabled students and:• fellow-students | micro-level• the study programme | meso-level• the university | macro-level
  8. 8. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 8MethodExplorative research, N=5 case studies, questionnaires + interviews design1 normally hearing person1 person with hyperacusis1 person with tinnitus1 hearing-impaired person1 person with sudden deafness in one ear** Sudden deafness has an onset of less than 72 hours.
  9. 9. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 9Definitions• Hyperacusis | a physical discomfort resulting from modest or even feeble levels of sound that the average listener would not think disruptive (Jastreboff & Jastreboff 2006)• Tinnitus | experiencing sounds in one or both ears and inside the head that cannot be attributed to external sources (Hiller & Goebel 1999)• Hearing-impaired | A general term denoting a reduced functioning of the sense of hearing (World Health Organization 2012)• Sudden deafness | (or acute idiopathic hearing loss) is a rapid deterioration in the sense of hearing. In can occur over a few days, or in a matter of a few seconds (Huizing et al. 2007)
  10. 10. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 10Instruments• Inventory of learning styles (ILS; Vermunt & Rijskwijk 1987)• Perception of the listening environment (PLE; Kennedy et al. 2006)• Semi-structured interviews
  11. 11. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 11Analysis design university studentmicro level ILS + interview ILS + interviewmeso level PLE + interview PLE + interviewmacro level interview interview
  12. 12. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 12Results •Limitations can be physical and social in nature. •Rigour in maintaining silence (e.g. during exams) is needed.micro •Access to microphones, powerpoints and audioloops is often poor. •Bad acoustics: echoeing, rustling and bad furnishings. •Behaviour of fellow students can highlight acoustical barriers. meso •Many hearing-disabled students only attend obligatory-attendance lectures. •Contact with study advisors is reported as poor. •Students will often take initiative in identifying support options.macro •Some support aids or services can actually raise study-barriers further (e.g. are poorly designed or executed).
  13. 13. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 13Citations from the interviews (translated from Dutch)• I wouldn’t dare to ask fellow students to be more quiet. But I do sometimes think, ‘Oh, do shut up!’• During a formal exam I was instructed to remove my hearing aid. It was claimed that it would allow me to overhear any questions that might be asked and responded to.• If I don’t react it is not because I don’t like you, or I’m ignoring you; I just simply cannot hear you…• Every now and then other students treat me as a retard. They will use very short sentences and exaggerate the articulation.• Nobody knew how the radio-aid worked, so I was told to just work it out for myself.• When I have asked a lecturer a few times in vain to raise his voice, I just give up.
  14. 14. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 14Results ILS inventory of learning styles • Responses reveal good study routines. • Respondents conceive of study as career preparation. • Content is studied in too much detail and is characterised by rote- learning. • Respondents struggle with controlling and monitoring their learning process. • Respondents reflect a doubting and incertain attitude to studying. • Their attitudes correspond less well with the demands of university.
  15. 15. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 15Results PLE Perception of the listening environment Dislikes Barriers Consequences • Students who • Background • Respondents talk during noise invariably sit in lectures the front when • Questions by they are • Students who students that present move around are not during lectures repeated by • But they attend the lecturer only obligatory lectures
  16. 16. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 16Conclusions Subsidiary questionsWhat does the study environment offer by way of support with other students?Studying with a hearing impairment is experienced by most respondents astrialling. Especially lectures are considered a disabling experience.What does the study environment offer by way of support in contact with thestudy programme?The study listening environment is considered poor by all respondents, except by thehearing student.What does the study environment offer by way of support in contact with theuniversity?Respondents describe contact with study advisors as poor and unproductive. Their responsessuggest that study advisors often don’t know what support is available; don’t give advice at all;and that the quality of advice depends on individuals.
  17. 17. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 17Main conclusionsWhat interaction is there between the learning styles of hearing-disabledstudents, characteristics of their impairment, the study environment and studysupport? (1) There is correspondence between hearing-disabled students’ attitudes towards study and learning styles (2) There is correspondence between listening environments and following lectures (3) There is correspondence between impairment, support and study delay
  18. 18. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 18Recommendations• Study environments need to be made better listening environments for hearing-disabled students.• Further research might focus on the listening environment of lectures.• Further research is needed into the methods and skills that study advisors use in advising hearing-disabled students.
  19. 19. faculty of behavioural and pedagogy and social sciences educational sciences 06-07-2012 | 19ReferencesHuizing, E.H., Snow, G.B., De Vries, N., Graamans, K. & Heyning van de, P. (2007). Keel-neus- oorheelkunde en hoofd-halschirurgie. Houten: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.Jastreboff, M. M. &. Jastreboff, P.J. (2006). Tinnitus retraining therapy: a different view on tinnitus. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec, 68, 23–29.Montanamoviestar. (20 oktober 2011). Does Your Tinnitus Sound Like this? [Video file]. Opgehaald van http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7O0UtoyyXIAVermunt, J.D. & Van Rijswijk, F. A. W. M. (1987). Inventaris Leerstijlen voor het hoger onderwijs. Tilburg: Katholieke Universiteit Brabant.World Health Organization. (2012). International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 2010. Other disorders of ear (H90-H95). Opgehaald van http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en#/H90-H95

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