210 ch1 fa13

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210 ch1 fa13

  1. 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Chapter 1 The Evolution of Microorganisms and Microbiology
  2. 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2 The Importance of Microorganisms • most abundant group of organisms and are found everywhere on the planet • play a major role in recycling essential elements • source of nutrients and some carry out photosynthesis • benefit society by their production of food, beverages, antibiotics and vitamins • causative agents of some important diseases – Refer to table: (Infectious Organisms in Nonhuman Reservoirs that may be transmitted to humans)
  3. 3. Ojective Unit 1 • Associate selected pathogenic microorganisms with specific infectious diseases Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 3
  4. 4. Fig. 33.8
  5. 5. Objective • Define the science of microbiology and describe some of the general methods used in the study of microorganisms Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 5
  6. 6. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 What is Microbiology? • generally defined as the study of organisms too small to be clearly seen by the unaided eye (i.e., microorganisms) & the techniques used to study them. • these organisms are relatively simple in their construction and lack highly differentiated cells and distinct tissues
  7. 7. Check out this website: • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/cells/scale/ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7
  8. 8. Objective • Describe very basic differences in procaryotic and eucaryotic morphology and the distribution of microorganisms among the various kingdoms or domains (Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya) in which living organisms are categorized Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 8
  9. 9. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 9 Members of the Microbial World • Procaryotic cells lack a true membrane-delimited nucleus • Eucaryotic cells have a membrane- enclosed nucleus, are more complex morphologically and are usually larger than procaryotic cells
  10. 10. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 10 Classification Schemes • five kingdom scheme includes Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia and Plantae with microbes placed in the first three kingdoms • three domain alternative, based on a comparison of ribosomal RNA, divides microorganisms into Bacteria (true bacteria), Archaea and Eucarya (eucaryotes)
  11. 11. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 11 Figure 1.1 Carl Woese
  12. 12. The Microbial World Bacteria Archaea Eucarya Cell type Prokaryote Prokaryote Eukaryote Cell organization Unicellular Unicellular Unicellular or Multicellular Cell Walls (containing peptidoglycan) Yes No No Membrane- bond organelles No No Yes Environments Found in All Extreme environments Not in extreme 12 1 2 3
  13. 13. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 13 Domain Eucarya – all eucaryotic • animals, plants and eucaryotic microorganisms – microorganisms include protists (unicellular algae, protozoa, slime molds and water molds) and fungi – most are larger than procaryotic cells
  14. 14. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 14 Viruses • acellular • smallest of all microbes (smallest is 10,000 times smaller than a typical bacterium) • cause a range of diseases including some cancers
  15. 15. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15 Discovery of Microorganisms • Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632- 1723) – first person to observe and describe microorganisms accurately Figure 1.3 (a)
  16. 16. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 16 Figure 1.3 (b) and (c)
  17. 17. Objective • Discuss & Describe the historical concept of spontaneous generation and the experiments that were performed to disprove this erroneous idea Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 17
  18. 18. Objective • Discuss 1.Francesco Redi (1626-1697) 2.John Needham (1713-1781) 1749 3.Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) 4.Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) 5.John Tyndall (1820-1893) & Ferdinard Cohn (1828-1898) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 18
  19. 19. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 19 The Conflict over Spontaneous Generation • spontaneous generation – living organisms can develop from nonliving or decomposing matter
  20. 20. Francesco Redi (1626-1697) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 20
  21. 21. But Could Spontaneous Generation be True for Microorganisms? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 21
  22. 22. John Needham (1713-1781) 1749 Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 22
  23. 23. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 23 Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) • his experiments – filtered air through cotton – Placed in sterile broth • results: microbial growth occurred
  24. 24. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 24
  25. 25. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 25 Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
  26. 26. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 26 Final Blow to Theory of Spontaneous Generation • John Tyndall (1820-1893) & Ferdinard Cohn (1828-1898) – demonstrated that dust carries microorganisms – showed that if dust was absent, nutrient broths remained sterile, even if directly exposed to air – also provided evidence for the existence of exceptionally heat-resistant forms of bacteria
  27. 27. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 27 The Role of Microorganisms in Disease • was not immediately obvious • establishing connection depended on development of techniques for studying microbes • once established, led to study of host defenses - immunology
  28. 28. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 28 • Robert Koch (1843-1910) – established the relationship between Bacillus anthracis and anthrax – used criteria developed by his teacher Jacob Henle (1809-1895) – these criteria now known as Koch’s postulates • still used today to establish the link between a particular microorganism and a particular disease
  29. 29. Objective • Describe how Koch’s postulates are used to establish the causal link between a suspected microorganism and a disease Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 29
  30. 30. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 30 Koch’s Postulates
  31. 31. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 31 The Development of Techniques for Studying Microbial Pathogens • Koch’s work led to discovery or development of: – agar – petri dish – nutrient broth and nutrient agar – methods for isolating microorganisms
  32. 32. Objective • List the contributions made by the following early pioneers in the science of microbiology: Antony van Leeuwenhoek, Redi, Pastuer, Tyndall, Cohn, Koch, Lister, and Carl Woese. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 32
  33. 33. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 33 Pasteur • Pasteur and Roux – discovered that incubation of cultures for long intervals between transfers caused pathogens to lose their ability to cause disease • Pasteur and his coworkers – developed vaccines for chicken cholera, anthrax, and rabies
  34. 34. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 34 The Development of Industrial Microbiology and Microbial Ecology • Louis Pasteur – demonstrated that alcohol fermentations and other fermentations were the result of microbial activity – developed the process of pasteurization to preserve wine during storage
  35. 35. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 35 – provided indirect evidence that microorganisms were the causal agents of disease – developed a system of surgery designed to prevent microorganisms from entering wounds as well as methods for treating instruments and surgical dressings – his patients had fewer postoperative infections Joseph Lister

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