Chapter1 - An Overview of Nutrition

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  • 1. An Overview ofAn Overview ofNutritionNutritionChapter 1Chapter 1
  • 2. IntroductionIntroduction• Daily food choices• Benefit health• Harm health• Chronic disease• Diet• Foods andbeverages
  • 3. Food ChoicesFood Choices• Choices are highly personal• Social or behavioral motives• Personal preference• Taste• Sweet and salty• Genetics• Habit• Ethnic heritage or tradition
  • 4. Food ChoicesFood Choices• Social interactions• Availability, convenience, and economy• Benefits of home-cooked meals• Positive and negative associations• Emotions• Boredom, depression, anxiety• Stress
  • 5. Food ChoicesFood Choices• Values• Religious beliefs, political views,environmental concerns• Body weight and image• Nutrition and health benefits• Functional foods• Examples
  • 6. The NutrientsThe Nutrients• Water• Hydrogen &oxygen• Inorganic• Minerals• Simplest nutrient• Inorganic• Vitamins• Organic• Carbohydrates• Organic• Proteins• Organic• Contains nitrogen• Lipids (fats)• Organic
  • 7. Body Composition of Health-Wight Men & Women
  • 8. Elements in the Six Classes ofElements in the Six Classes ofNutrientsNutrients
  • 9. Energy-Yielding NutrientsEnergy-Yielding Nutrients• Amount of energy in food• Depends on macronutrient composition• Using nutrients for energy• Breaking of bonds• Storage of excess energy• Metabolism• Materials for building body tissues• Regulation of bodily activities
  • 10. Energy-Yielding NutrientsEnergy-Yielding Nutrients• Provide kcalories• Carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g• Protein = 4 kcal/g• Fat = 9 kcal/g• Alcohol• Not a nutrient• Yields energy – 7 kcal/g• Macronutrients vs. micronutrients
  • 11. The VitaminsThe Vitamins• Thirteen organic vitamins• Water-soluble vitamins• Fat-soluble vitamins• Facilitate energy release• Almost every bodily action requiresassistance from vitamins• Vulnerable to destruction• Examples
  • 12. The Minerals & WaterThe Minerals & Water• Minerals• Do not yield energy• Sixteen essential minerals• Indestructible• Causes of mineral losses from foods• Water• Medium for nearly all body activities
  • 13. The Science of NutritionThe Science of Nutrition• Foundation in several other sciences• Biology, biochemistry, physiology• Tremendous growth• Sequencing of human genome• Nutritional genomics
  • 14. Conducting ResearchConducting Research• Use of scientific method• Systematic process for conducting research• Research studies• Controls• Randomization• Sample size• Placebos• Double-blind experiments
  • 15. The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method
  • 16. Conducting ResearchConducting Research• Epidemiological studies• Cross-sectional studies• Case-control studies• Cohort studies• Experimental studies• Laboratory-based animal studies• Laboratory-base in vitro studies• Clinical trials
  • 17. Examples of Research Designs
  • 18. Examples of Research Designs
  • 19. Analyzing Research FindingsAnalyzing Research Findings• Correlations – only show association• Positive correlation• Not necessarily a desired outcome• Negative correlation• No correlation• Cautious interpretations and conclusions• Accumulation of evidence
  • 20. Publishing ResearchPublishing Research• Peer review• Research has validity• Findings are preliminary when published• Not meaningful by themselves• Findings need to be replicated
  • 21. Parts of a Research Article
  • 22. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Standards defined for:• Energy• Nutrients• Other dietary components• Physical activity• Collaborative effort of U.S. and Canada• Recommendations apply to healthy people• May be different for specific groups
  • 23. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)• Average amount sufficient for half ofpopulation• Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)• Recommendations to meet needs of mosthealthy people• About 98% of population
  • 24. EAR and RDA ComparedEAR and RDA Compared
  • 25. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Adequate Intakes (AI)• Insufficient scientific evidence• AI value set instead of RDA• Expected to exceed average requirements• Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)• Point where nutrient is likely to be toxic• Helps protect against overconsumption
  • 26. Inaccurate vs. Accurate ViewInaccurate vs. Accurate Viewof Nutrient Intakesof Nutrient Intakes
  • 27. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)• Average dietary energy intake to maintainenergy balance• Healthy body weight• Physical activity• No upper level
  • 28. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Acceptable Macronutrient DistributionRanges (AMDR)• Adequate energy and nutrients• Reduce risk of chronic diseases• Range• 45-65% kcalories from carbohydrate• 20-35% kcalories from fat• 10-35% kcalories from protein
  • 29. Dietary Reference IntakesDietary Reference Intakes• Estimates apply to healthy people• Needed adjustments• Recommendations – not minimum levels noroptimal levels• Goals intended to be met through diet• Apply to average daily intakes• Each DRI category serves a unique purpose
  • 30. Nutrition Assessment –Nutrition Assessment –Individual LevelIndividual Level• Deficiency or excess over time leads tomalnutrition• Undernutrition and overnutrition• Symptoms of malnutrition• Diarrhea• Skin rashes• Fatigue• Others
  • 31. Nutrition Assessment –Nutrition Assessment –Individual LevelIndividual Level• Creating a “total picture” of the individual• Historical information• Health status, SES, drug use• Diet history – intake over several days;portion sizes; computer analysis• Anthropometric measurements• Height and weight – track to identify trends• Physical examinations• Laboratory tests
  • 32. Stages in the Development of aStages in the Development of aNutrient DeficiencyNutrient Deficiency
  • 33. Nutrition Assessment –Nutrition Assessment –Population LevelPopulation Level• National nutrition surveys• National nutrition monitoring program• Coordinates two major national surveys• Oversample high-risk groups• National health goals• Healthy People• National trends
  • 34. Healthy People 2020 Nutrition& Weight Status Objectives
  • 35. Healthy People 2020 Nutrition& Weight Status Objectives
  • 36. Diet and HealthDiet and Health• Food plays vital role in supporting health• Chronic disease – epidemic levels• Multiple factors over multiple years• Leading causes of death
  • 37. Diet and Health• Risk factors• Persist over time• Cluster• Prominence of riskfactors• Tobacco• Diet & activitypatterns• Others
  • 38. NutritionNutritionInformation &Information &MisinformationMisinformationHighlight 1
  • 39. Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation• Validity of information• Who is providing information?• Qualifications• Internet• Anyone can publish anything• No guarantees of accuracy• Evaluate websites• Who, When, Where, Why, and What?
  • 40. • News• Often tell lopsided story• Testimonials• Tight deadlines• Limited understanding• Current and controversialNutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation
  • 41. • Identifying nutrition experts• Physicians & other health-care professionals• Training in nutrition is limited• Registered Dietitian (RD)• Degree and clinical internship• National exam• Maintain up-to-date knowledge• Dietetic Technician Registered (DTR)Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation
  • 42. • Identifying fake credentials• Accreditation• Diploma mills• Fraudulent businesses• Red flags of nutrition quackery• MisinformationNutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation
  • 43. Nutrition Information &Nutrition Information &MisinformationMisinformation