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  1. 1. Nutrition
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Name the six classes of nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the functions and food sources of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the need for enough fiber in your diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify one health disorder linked to high levels of saturated fats in the diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how diet can influence health. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Nutrition? <ul><li>The science or study of food and the ways in which the body uses food. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients are the substances in food that provide energy or help form body tissues and are necessary for life and growth. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Proper Diet <ul><li>Along with exercise, a proper diet is essential for weight control and physical fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>How you eat has a huge impact on your physique and how your body metabolizes food. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Six Classes of Nutrients <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>A Balanced Diet To be healthy, you need the right amount of nutrients from each class. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Carbohydrates are energy-giving nutrients that include sugars, starches, and fiber. </li></ul><ul><li>Sugars are the simplest form of carbohydrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Starches are more complex carbohydrates that can be broken down into sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>1 gram of carbohydrate equals 4 calories. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Carbs Continued <ul><li>Glycogen is a form of carbohydrate your body uses for short-term energy storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber is a complex carbohydrate that provides little energy and cannot be digested. However, fiber is important to keep your digestive system healthy. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Simple Carbohydrates <ul><li>Single and double sugars </li></ul><ul><li>Broken down easily for rapid energy </li></ul><ul><li>End in ose </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Disaccharides </li></ul>
  9. 9. Simple Sugars <ul><li>Glucose is a single sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Fructose, lactose and sucrose are double sugars and are linked with glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Glycogen: quick energy stores </li></ul><ul><li>If you eat more than your body needs it is stored as fat </li></ul>
  10. 11. Complex Carbohydrates <ul><li>Made of many sugars connected together </li></ul><ul><li>Must be broken down to be used by the body </li></ul>
  11. 12. Starches and Fiber <ul><li>Starches: plant foods (potatoes, beans, peas, and grains such as rice corn and wheat). </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber: provides little energy and is indigestible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps your digestive tract healthy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soluble fiber: dissolves in water. Helps trap cholesterol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insoluble fiber: add bulk to waste. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Fats <ul><li>Fats are the body’s main form of long-term energy storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Fats are large molecules made up of fatty acids and glycerol. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids are long chains of carbon atoms attached to hydrogen atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Fats are classified by the types of fatty acids they contain. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Saturated Fat <ul><li>Saturated fats contain saturated fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. They come from foods such as meat and milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating too many saturated fats can lead to obesity, high cholesterol levels, and increased risk of heart disease. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Unsaturated Fat <ul><li>Unsaturated fats contain unsaturated fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated fats are usually liquid at room temperature. They come from foods such as oils and fish. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Trans Fat <ul><li>An unhealthy substance made through the chemical process of hydrogenation of oils. Hydrogenation solidifies liquid oils and increases the shelf life and the flavor stability of oils and foods that contain them. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Uses For Fat <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Padding for organs </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Carry fat soluble vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul>
  17. 20. Cholesterol <ul><li>Found in all animal tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>You make it and you eat it. </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol is necessary for certain essential functions in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Low-density lipoprotein: brings cholesterol to the body cells. </li></ul><ul><li>When your LDL is too high plaque is deposited on the walls of blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>LDL= bad cholesterol. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Cholesterol Continued <ul><li>High-density lipoprotein: carries cholesterol back to the liver for elimination </li></ul><ul><li>HDL=good cholesterol </li></ul>
  19. 23. Which Fat? <ul><li>You need fat in your diet </li></ul><ul><li>Too much is bad!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Limit saturated fats, cholesterol, and trans fats </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on unsaturated fats </li></ul><ul><li>25-35% of your diet should come from fat </li></ul><ul><li>1 gram of fat = 9 calories </li></ul>
  20. 24. Protein <ul><li>Proteins are made of amino acids, which are used in building and repairing structures in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins are also needed for hormones, enzymes, and other essential molecules. </li></ul>
  21. 25. Protein Continued <ul><li>Essential amino acids are nine amino acids that the body cannot produce on its own. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete proteins are dietary proteins that contain all the essential amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete proteins do not contain all the essential amino acids. </li></ul>
  22. 26. Uses for Proteins <ul><li>Body building nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Build & repair tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones, enzymes, antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Americans get too much protein </li></ul><ul><li>Excess stores as fat </li></ul><ul><li>1 gram of protein = 4 calories </li></ul>
  23. 27. Metabolism <ul><li>Metabolism is the sum of the chemical processes that take place in your body to keep you alive and active. </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism requires energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy in food is measured in calories. </li></ul>
  24. 28. What Is a Calorie? <ul><li>A calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a liter of water 1 degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Relax. It is just a scientific way to measure energy. </li></ul>
  25. 29. What Do You Need to Know About Calories? <ul><li>Think about what you regularly eat, </li></ul><ul><li>What your calorie needs are, </li></ul><ul><li>And how to count calories. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes approximately 3,500 calories below your calorie needs to lose a pound of body fat. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes approximately 3,500 calories above your calorie needs to gain a pound. </li></ul>
  26. 30. Calories Count—and They Come From Both Food and Beverages. <ul><li>When eating packaged foods (for example, frozen, canned, and some prepared foods from the grocery store), counting your calories is easy—it's on the nutrition facts label. </li></ul><ul><li>When eating foods that do not have a nutrition facts label, you should pay attention to portion size. </li></ul>
  27. 31. Carbohydrate Protein Fat Carbohydrate Carbohydrate Carbohydrate Protein Protein Protein Fat Fat Fat We need food for energy As we eat, our body uses that energy for all processes and energy for exercise If we do not exercise our bodies will convert the energy into FAT Some nutrients that we do not use is stored temporarily as glycogen
  28. 32. Can You: <ul><li>Name the six classes of nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the functions and food sources of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the need for enough fiber in your diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify one health disorder linked to high levels of saturated fats in the diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how diet can influence health. </li></ul>
  29. 33. No Applause Is Necessary The End