Nutrition powerpoint - CHAPTER 2


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Nutrition powerpoint - CHAPTER 2

  1. 1. NUTRITIONFeel better today. Stay healthy for tomorrow. GERALDO SILVA WORCESTER STATE UNIVERSITY 2012
  2. 2. WHAT IS NUTRITION? WHAT IS A NUTRIENT?• The study of how your • A nutrient is a chemical body uses the food that substance in food that helps maintain the body. Some you eat. provide energy. All help build cells and tissues, regulate bodily processes such as breathing. No single food supplies all the nutrients the body needs to function.
  4. 4.  CALORIES definition: A UNIT OF MEASURE FOR ENERGY IN FOOD • Nutrients that have • Calories per gram calories  Protein 1 gram = 4 calories Proteins  Carbohydrates 1 gram = 4 calories Carbohydrates  Fat 1 gram = 9 calories Fats
  5. 5. • Variables which affect nutrient needs• 1. Age• 2. Gender• 3. Activity Level• 4. Climate• 5. Health• 6. State of nutrition
  6. 6. The health eating pyramid and guidelines• Aim for a health weight• Be physically active each day• Let the pyramid guide your choices• Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains• Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily• Keep food safe to eat• Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat• Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars• Choose and prepare food with less salt• If you drink alcoholic beverages do so in moderation
  7. 7. WEIGHT AND HEALTH Approximately 61% of American adults are considered overweight or obese. CAUSES:• Sedentary life style• Abundance of junk food and fast-food• Higher incidence in people with low socioeconomic status• Higher incidence of African-American and Latin-American women.• High price of fruits, vegetables and Organic whole foods.
  8. 8. DIETING... “I’ve been dieting for a month and all I’ve lost is 31 days!”• Low-Calorie diet – The most well know and most practiced of all the diets. It is also the most unhealthy. Drastic weight loss in the beginning followed by a weight again afterwards.• High-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Diets - Eating without caloric restriction. It should come from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains primarily.• High Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diets - It will promote weight loss without calorie restriction.  TIPS:• Every and any diet needs to include lots of fruits and vegetables to be healthy.• Drink plenty of fluid such as water or natural juices.• Avoid sugars.• Avoid refined and processed foods.
  9. 9. So What Works? Guidelines For Success...• Eat a low-fat, high carbohydrate diet • Maintaining weight loss• Eat breakfast every day is more difficult than losing it.• Monitor progress • Limit intake of certain• Get high levels of foods physical activity, about • The key to weight an hour a day management is to• Eat five times/day establish eating and activity patterns that• Burn an average of can be sustained 2,800 calories/week; 400 calories/day
  10. 10. NUTRITON-RELATED HEALTH ISSUES• ANOREXIA NERVOSA Characterized • POSSIBLE SIGNS OF EATING by the incessant pursuit of thinness, and intense fear of gaining weight. DISORDER: • Change in personality or behavior such as more withdrawn, depressed or irritable.• BULIMIA NERVOSA • Unusual eating habits such as stopping eating Consists of episodes of binge eating and with family or friends, engages in vomiting or purging. uses laxatives, diet pills, diuretics or rigorous dieting.• BINGE-EATING DISORDER (BED) • Physical symptoms: failure to gain weight, extreme weight change, fine, downy hair Is a more recently described disorder that growth, skin rash and dry skin chronic fatigue comprises binging similar to Bulimia, but and inability to think clearly. without the purging behavior
  11. 11. I AM A WOMAN Using nutrition to address our health issues Top diet and nutrition tips for women• Focus on whole, plant-based foods. Fill most of your plate with fruits and leafy green vegetables. Also include a variety of whole grains, beans, and legumes to give you filling fiber and keep you going throughout the day. Try to find minimally-processed or locally-grown foods whenever possible and make these foods the mainstay of your diet. Fiber will also help with the digestive system.• Bone up on calcium. Women are at a greater risk than men of developing osteoporosis, so it’s important to get plenty of calcium to support your bone health. While dairy products are high in calcium, their animal fat and protein can accelerate bone loss. So also consider plant-based sources of calcium like beans, broccoli, kale, Brussels sprouts, and collard greens.• Don’t eat too much protein. Protein is an essential part of any healthy diet, but eating too much animal- based protein—such as the levels recommended in many low-carb, high-protein diets—is particularly dangerous for women. Eating lots of protein causes calcium loss. Over time, this could lead to a decrease in bone density and osteoporosis.• Make sure you get enough iron. Many women don’t get enough iron in their diet. On top of that, women lose a lot of this important mineral during menstruation. Boost your intake by eating iron-rich foods such as lean red meat, dark poultry, lentils, spinach, almonds, and iron-fortified cereals.• Cut back on alcohol and caffeine. Women who have more than two alcoholic drinks a day are at higher risk of osteoporosis. Caffeine consumption interferes with hormone levels and also increases the loss of calcium. Try to limit alcohol consumption to one glass a day and caffeine to one cup a day.