The Science of Nutrition
Chapter 1
Introduction
• Quality of life
• Foods we choose to eat
• Immediate health
• Risk of disease

• Science
• Hope and controv...
What Do We Mean by
“Nutrition”?
• Nutrition
• Variety of scientific disciplines
• Nutritional scientists
• Dietitians
• RD...
What Do We Mean by
“Nutrition”?
• Nutrients
• Evolving definition
• Six categories
• Macronutrients
• Micronutrients
• Ess...
Micronutrients vs.
Macronutrients
What Do We Mean by
“Nutrition”?
• Nutrients
• Organic compounds
• Inorganic compounds
• “Certified Organic”
foods
• Nation...
What Do We Mean by
“Nutrition”?
• Phytochemicals
• Health-promoting substances found in plants
• Zoonutrients
• Health-pro...
What Are the Major Nutrient
Classes?
• Carbohydrates
• Elements
• Types
• Glucose
• Primary source of energy
• Roles
What Are the Major Nutrient
Classes?
• Proteins
• Sources
• Elements
• Roles
• Lipids
• Sources
• Types
• Elements
• Roles
What Are the Major Nutrient
Classes?
• Water
• Roles
• Vitamins
• Elements
• Roles
• Types
• Minerals
• Roles
How Do Foods Provide Energy?
• Energy
• Capacity of a physical system to do work
• Energy-yielding nutrients
• Adenosine t...
Bomb Calorimeter
How Do Foods Provide Energy?
• Estimating food calories
• Carbohydrates and proteins – 4 kcal/gram
• Lipids – 9 kcal/gram
...
How Is Nutrition Research
Conducted?
• Scientific method
• Step 1: making an observation
• Appropriate and accurate observ...
Simple Relationships vs.
Complex Relationships
How Is Nutrition Research
Conducted?
• Scientific method
• Step 3: testing the hypothesis
• Epidemiological studies
– Corr...
• Scientific method
• Step 3: testing the hypothesis
• Intervention studies
– Test for causality
– Control group
– Types o...
The Ideal Nutrition Intervention
Study
Are All Nutrition Claims
Believable?
• Determine the source of the information
• Primary sources
• Reputable publications
...
Some Reliable Source of
Nutrition Information
Nutrition and Health: What Is the
Connection?
• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC)
• Use of rates
• Mortalit...
Changes in Life Expectancy and
IMR Since 1900
Nutrition and Health: What Is the
Connection?
• Disease
• Infectious
• Noninfectious
• Autoimmune diseases
• Chronic degen...
Five Leading Causes of Death in
1902, 1950, and 2007
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Chapter1

  1. 1. The Science of Nutrition Chapter 1
  2. 2. Introduction • Quality of life • Foods we choose to eat • Immediate health • Risk of disease • Science • Hope and controversy • Nutrition and human health • Deficiencies and abundance
  3. 3. What Do We Mean by “Nutrition”? • Nutrition • Variety of scientific disciplines • Nutritional scientists • Dietitians • RD credential • Nutritional sciences
  4. 4. What Do We Mean by “Nutrition”? • Nutrients • Evolving definition • Six categories • Macronutrients • Micronutrients • Essential nutrients • Nonessential nutrients • Conditionally essential nutrients
  5. 5. Micronutrients vs. Macronutrients
  6. 6. What Do We Mean by “Nutrition”? • Nutrients • Organic compounds • Inorganic compounds • “Certified Organic” foods • National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) • Reading labels
  7. 7. What Do We Mean by “Nutrition”? • Phytochemicals • Health-promoting substances found in plants • Zoonutrients • Health-promoting substances found in animal foods • Functional foods • Enhanced amounts of traditional nutrients • Phytochemicals • Zoonutrients
  8. 8. What Are the Major Nutrient Classes? • Carbohydrates • Elements • Types • Glucose • Primary source of energy • Roles
  9. 9. What Are the Major Nutrient Classes? • Proteins • Sources • Elements • Roles • Lipids • Sources • Types • Elements • Roles
  10. 10. What Are the Major Nutrient Classes? • Water • Roles • Vitamins • Elements • Roles • Types • Minerals • Roles
  11. 11. How Do Foods Provide Energy? • Energy • Capacity of a physical system to do work • Energy-yielding nutrients • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) • Energy measurement • Calorie • Bomb calorimeter
  12. 12. Bomb Calorimeter
  13. 13. How Do Foods Provide Energy? • Estimating food calories • Carbohydrates and proteins – 4 kcal/gram • Lipids – 9 kcal/gram • Alcohol – 7 kcal/gram • Percentage of energy from energy-yielding nutrients • Recommendations
  14. 14. How Is Nutrition Research Conducted? • Scientific method • Step 1: making an observation • Appropriate and accurate observation • Step 2: proposing a hypothesis • Two types of hypotheses • Simple vs. complex relationships – Interactions
  15. 15. Simple Relationships vs. Complex Relationships
  16. 16. How Is Nutrition Research Conducted? • Scientific method • Step 3: testing the hypothesis • Epidemiological studies – Correlational relationships only – Framingham Heart Study – NHANES – Advantages and limitations
  17. 17. • Scientific method • Step 3: testing the hypothesis • Intervention studies – Test for causality – Control group – Types of biases – Controlling for biases – Advantages and limitations of human studies – Animal and cell culture studies
  18. 18. The Ideal Nutrition Intervention Study
  19. 19. Are All Nutrition Claims Believable? • Determine the source of the information • Primary sources • Reputable publications • Credibility of the researchers • Qualified and knowledgeable • Who paid for the research? • Evaluate the experimental design • Do public health organizations concur?
  20. 20. Some Reliable Source of Nutrition Information
  21. 21. Nutrition and Health: What Is the Connection? • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) • Use of rates • Mortality rate • Infant mortality rate • Morbidity rates • Incidence and prevalence • Life expectancy • Graying of America
  22. 22. Changes in Life Expectancy and IMR Since 1900
  23. 23. Nutrition and Health: What Is the Connection? • Disease • Infectious • Noninfectious • Autoimmune diseases • Chronic degenerative diseases • Disease etiology • Leading causes of death • Risk factors • Nutrition transition
  24. 24. Five Leading Causes of Death in 1902, 1950, and 2007

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