Access to Knowledge and                  Philosophy of Technology                                     Eddan Katz          ...
What is Access to Knowledge                      (A2K)?              • Theoretical Framework for understanding the        ...
A2K & Philosophy              • Origins of Access to Knowledge is at the                  intersection of innovation and d...
My Thesis              • Access to Knowledge is key to the attainment of                  human development and human righ...
History of IP & International                        Trade              • What is similar between designer handbags,      ...
Knowledge & Information                             Theory  • Information - basic facts, news, weather, government     doc...
Regime-Shifting & Public                       Choice Theory              • Small multi-national corporate alliance first  ...
Development Agenda &                        Cyber-Activism              • South Centre, ICTSD, KEI and others create      ...
A2K Country Study Topics                    • Agriculture: seed patents, distributed scientific research; farmers rights  ...
A2K Claims - Development              • Human Development - essential needs: food                  security, medicine, edu...
A2K Claims - Open                                 Infrastucture              • Open Infrastructures are better for efficienc...
Open Access Journals              • Increasing monopoly over publication of schoalrly                  materials.         ...
Historical Moment              • Will information and knowledge production                  continue to be dominated by la...
Questions for Philosophers              • What is the status of moral obligation within                  open infrastructu...
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A2k rit

  1. 1. Access to Knowledge and Philosophy of Technology Eddan Katz Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) Hale Lecture on Ethics September 20, 2007Wednesday, December 29, 2010 1
  2. 2. What is Access to Knowledge (A2K)? • Theoretical Framework for understanding the knowledge economy • Social Movement of technology, intellectual property, access to medicines, etc. activists from developed and developing countries • Draft Treaty and Development Agenda at the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)Wednesday, December 29, 2010 2
  3. 3. A2K & Philosophy • Origins of Access to Knowledge is at the intersection of innovation and development • Led by technology policy activists, law & technology centers, law professors & economists • Yale ISP leading intellectual framing and movement-building • Set of questions that need to be worked through and supported by philosophersWednesday, December 29, 2010 3
  4. 4. My Thesis • Access to Knowledge is key to the attainment of human development and human rights • Open Infrastructures are key to improving access to knowledge • Can an ethics of the good support the claim that open infrastructures are key to A2K?Wednesday, December 29, 2010 4
  5. 5. History of IP & International Trade • What is similar between designer handbags, hollywood movies, and genetically modified food? • IP alliance formed between agri-biotech, copyright alliance, and anti-counterfeiting. • Agenda to shift IP as the domain of international trade and set out harmonized global regime • Exploit anxieties about US trade deficit - claim about maximizing IP protection as key to maintaining hegemony in knowledge economy.Wednesday, December 29, 2010 5
  6. 6. Knowledge & Information Theory • Information - basic facts, news, weather, government documents • Knowledge - education, artisan and technical skill • Knowledge-Embedded Goods - pharmaceuticals, agricultural seeds, computer software • Knowledge-Embedded Tools - internet infrastructure, technical standards, research databasesWednesday, December 29, 2010 6
  7. 7. Regime-Shifting & Public Choice Theory • Small multi-national corporate alliance first drafting of IP regime wish list. • Frustrated by WIPO, alliance moves to WTO. Passes TRIPs. • Trade negotiations with developing countries. TRIPs-Plus Agenda • Harmonization & Resistance. Special 301 - USTRWednesday, December 29, 2010 7
  8. 8. Development Agenda & Cyber-Activism • South Centre, ICTSD, KEI and others create PCDA - working group at WIPO. • Reform WIPO on subject matter, technical assistance, and flexibilities of implementation • This week confirmed recommendations to General Assembly at WIPO • Upcoming interpretive battle over impact on WIPO activitiesWednesday, December 29, 2010 8
  9. 9. A2K Country Study Topics • Agriculture: seed patents, distributed scientific research; farmers rights • Health: access to medicines, access to information about health; informed consent • Science: scientific publication & IP, open access journals; distributed databases • Genetic Resources: traditional medicine; varietal protection; clinical trials • Education: IP & textbooks; distance learning; open educational resources • Culture: mass media & new media; creative commons; digital piracy • Traditional Knowledge: indigenous culture; community benefit-sharing • Software: free and open source; DRM/anti-circumvention; values in design • Libraries: copyright exceptions & limitations; community access; public domain • ICT: mobile technology, telecentres, universal service; broadband access • Infrastructure: internet governance; technical barriers to trade; standards • Information: transparency & democracy; ownership of information; privacyWednesday, December 29, 2010 9
  10. 10. A2K Claims - Development • Human Development - essential needs: food security, medicine, education, partic. in culture • Social Justice - distributive. Not opportunities in the form of rights. • Technology & Competition Policy - dependent on economic development & cultural context • Spurring information & knowledge production in these areas (info, knowledge, KEG, KET) will improve people’s livesWednesday, December 29, 2010 10
  11. 11. A2K Claims - Open Infrastucture • Open Infrastructures are better for efficiency and production. (e.g., open source, wikipedia, p2p (vs. drm) • Open infrastructure enable greater freedom and individual participation. Modifiability; tailoring to local needs • Peer Production - non-market voluntarism. Modularity, Granularity, Integration.Wednesday, December 29, 2010 11
  12. 12. Open Access Journals • Increasing monopoly over publication of schoalrly materials. • Built on top of regime of exclusive rights in copyright • Reputation economy - entrenched publication hierarchy • Economy of Ideas - Value grows with greater distributionWednesday, December 29, 2010 12
  13. 13. Historical Moment • Will information and knowledge production continue to be dominated by large corporate entities in a centralized structure? • or Will information production be distributed across greater number of people, from all around the world? Strategy is one of participation. • This is dependent on international technology policy.Wednesday, December 29, 2010 13
  14. 14. Questions for Philosophers • What is the status of moral obligation within open infrastructures & online communities? • Where is the source of responsibility in network infrastructures? • How can the open infrastructures be reconciled with reactionary cultural preservation & sanctification of knowledge? • Can distributive justice claims be globalized or is it a question for national policy?Wednesday, December 29, 2010 14

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