Lecture 2011.01: General Introduction and Open Access (Digital Sustainability)
Digital Sustainabilityin the Knowledge Society Welcome to Class 2011 ! :) Dr. Marcus M. Dapp Lecturer ETH Zurich & IT strategist, City of Munich 26.09.2011
Today• GOAL: you come back next week :)• Message: Knowledge is different!• Scientific publishing & Open Access• Lecture overview• «How to get credits & make friends»
• »If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange them, you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas.« • George Bernard Shaw
What did we learn?• Physical stuff • Information stuff • One original, • All copies ident., no copies „original“? • Only one can • Can be shared eat the whole easily • Prevent others • Prevent others from access is from access is easy <...>?
Economists: Two Characteristics of Goods• How excludable is access? • Easy/Diffult to prevent people from access?• How rival is consumption? • Does one person‘s use of the good diminish another person‘s enjoyment of it? (Verbrauch vs. Gebrauch)
Characteristics of Knowledge Consumption rivalrous nonrivalrous Consumption Private Goods Natural Monopolies Does one excludible person‘s use Car, Book Fire protection diminish another (most stuff...) Cable TV person‘s Access enjoyment of it? nonexcludible Common Resources Access Public Goods Can people be Fish in the ocean Peace/Nat’l Defense prevented from The environment Knowledge/Culture using the good? N. Gregory Mankiw, Principles of Economics, Dryden 1998. Knowledge »as such« is nonrivalrous and hardtoexclude.
But markets‘ need rivalry...• Pricing needs scarcity• Scarcity needs rivalry• What if there is no rivalry? • Create it!
How to make knowledge rivalrous• »Intellectual property rights« • Exclude others from access/use • By creating legal monopolies • Copyrights, patents, trademarks, ... • Underlying assumption: No new knowledge created if • No incentives Do you agree? • No rewards
<ethical position>• »For if a thing is not diminished by being shared with others, it is not rightly owned if it is only owned and not shared.« • Saint Augustinus (397 AD)
What happens when information goes digital?• Analog world • »digital effects« • costly production • … of PCs on & distribution production need investments • … of the Internet • Risky investments on distribution need incentives
Many »things« are knowledge artifacts• Science • Software• Traditions • MP3 Audio• Literature • Video• Human genome • JPEG image• Design plans • Blog/Wiki entry• ... • ...
Example: Scientific publishing• Scholars publish articles (in journals)• Use references to: • Learn • Build on previous work • Measure performance• Important system for • Knowledge exchange • Reputation building
Science: How much does one brain contribute? ALMOST ALL? ONLY A BIT AT THE TOP?
The »all alone« theory• How did Edison invent the light bulb? • By working hard for a long time? By being an individual genius? ALL ALONE
The »just a bit« theory• How did Einstein build the Theory of Relativity? • All by his own? By building on previous work? • Was he »just« the last missing piece in a long chain? PREVIOUS WORK
How does science evolve?• »If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.« Isaac Newton, 1676• »Genius is one per cent inspiration, ninetynine per cent perspiration.« Thomas Alva Edison, 18471931• »Creativity and innovation always builds on the past.« Lawrence Lessig, 2001
Different »theories« lead to different world views• Goal = Ensure • Goal = Ensure • Protection • Access • Incentives • Information Flow• for creator only • for many/all
Example: STM publishing industry • Scientific, technical and medical journals (STM) • 8 largest = 2/3 of the market • Market size: $7.3 billion (NAM, EU) • Where are the “Developing Countries”?Source: UK House of Commons, Science and Technology Committee,10th Report, Scientific Publications: Free for all?, 20. July 2004
STM publishing market publishing industry Edit & proof Publish read ¥€$! Review & Write select scientific community
Publishers like the status quo• Get content • Highquality (peerreviewed) • Gratis • Plus: Copyright transfer• Costs get lower • Digital technology• Income • Loyal readers
The market is a pyramid• Motto »Reach the top«• No product substitution• Demand is independent of supply• Does market play?
• «All researchers, regardless of the nature of their institution, should be granted access to the scientific journals they need to carry out their work effectively.» • 10th Report of Science and Technology Committee (UK House of Commons) »Open Access Publishing«
Open access publishing process (industry is skipped) Edit & proof Publish read Review & Write select scientific community
Open access initiatives• Public Library of Science • www.plos.org• Directory of Open Access Journals • www.doaj.org• Wikipedia encyclopedia • www.wikipedia.org
There is much more...• ‚Journals‘ are one example in the big DEBATE• about the use of digital resources in our society. Important aspects: • stakeholder groups • costs & benefits • levels of power
Goal #1 of this class – Understand the big picture! Traditional models Sustainable approaches Use of digital resources Digital Technology Production & Distribution of Knowledge & Culture Stakeholders Cost/Benefit Power Law Economics Politics
Goal #2 of this class – Reflect on selected issues• Groups of 3 students produce • report (5000 words) • presentation in class (10+5)• Can get 2 credits• Space limit: max.15 groups • Solution: »Apply« online for a topic
ReaderPackage• Jeanette Hofmann (Hrsg.), Wissen und Eigentum, bpb 2006.• Volker Grassmuck, Freie Software, bpb 2004.• Konrad Becker, Die Politik der Infosphäre, bpb 2003. • All available as online PDFs.
Next week• Discussing Key Terms• HOWTO groupwork • Write the report • Run a presentation