Mapping A2K Advocacy: Towards a Coalition Against ACTA


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Consumers International A2K Network Global Meeting
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
April 22, 2010

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Mapping A2K Advocacy: Towards a Coalition Against ACTA

  1. 1. Mapping A2K Advocacy: Towards a Coalition Against ACTA Consumers International A2K Network Global Meeting Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia April 22, 2010 Eddan Katz Electronic Frontier Fundation International Affairs DirectorWednesday, December 29, 2010 1
  2. 2. History of IP & Trade What is similar between designer handbags, hollywood movies, and genetically modified food? IP alliance formed between agri-biotech, pharmaceutical industry, copyright alliance, and anti-counterfeiting. Agenda to shift IP as the domain of international trade and set out harmonized global regime Exploit anxieties about US trade deficit - claim about maximizing IP protection as key to maintaining hegemony in knowledge economy.Wednesday, December 29, 2010 2
  3. 3. Regime Shifting & Public Choice Theory Small multi-national corporate alliance first drafting of IP regime wish list. Frustrated by WIPO, alliance moves to WTO. TRIPs Agreement . Bi-lateral trade negotiations with regions & countries. TRIPs-Plus Agenda Harmonization &Wednesday, December 29, 2010 3
  4. 4. Information Theory Information - basic facts, news, weather, government documents Knowledge - education, artisan and technical skill Knowledge-Embedded Goods - pharmaceuticals, agricultural seeds, computer software Knowledge-Embedded Tools - internet infrastructure, technical standards, research databasesWednesday, December 29, 2010 4
  5. 5. Access to Knowledge Creativity Collaboration Appropriation Innovation Competition IntegrationWednesday, December 29, 2010 5
  6. 6. Human Development & Fundamental Rights Human Development Essential Needs: Food security, Medicine, Education, Participation in Culture. Social Justice Distributive Equality. Fundamental Rights & Civil Liberties. Human Freedom. Technology & Competition Policy Dependent on Economic development & Cultural Context. Knowledge Production Sustainability. Education of Knowledge Workers. Democratization of Opportunity.Wednesday, December 29, 2010 6
  7. 7. Open Infrastructure Peer Production - Non-market volunteerism Modularity, Granularity, Integration Modifiability - Customization & Localization Training Knowledge Workers Interoperability - removing barriers to entry Improved Efficiency and Productivity Safeguarding Human Freedom - decentralization of controlWednesday, December 29, 2010 7
  8. 8. Totality and Infinity in the Information Society• Open vs. Closed • Access vs. Control • User Rights vs. Intellectual Property• Privacy vs. Security • Competition vs. Monopoly • Anonymity vs. Identification• Entrepreneur vs. Incumbent • Transparency vs. State secrets • Exceptions vs. Enforcement• Commons vs. Proprietary • Human vs. Automation • Disintermediation vs. Centralization• Data Protection vs. Data Retention • Circumvention vs. Lock • Trust vs. Surveillance• Non-commercial vs. Monetized • Community vs. Corporate • Neutrality vs. Discrimination• Information vs. Manufacturing • Communication vs. Censorship • Freedom vs. FearWednesday, December 29, 2010 8
  9. 9. Advocacy Networks Consumer Protection Human Rights Privacy IP & Commons EnvironmentalismWednesday, December 29, 2010 9
  10. 10. Transnational Memetics Advocacy Issue Brokerage Identifying Parallel & Complementary Organizations Translating common values across specialized fields Methods Network of Networks Mailing List cc: & fwd: International Surveys Co-signatories on DeclarationsWednesday, December 29, 2010 10
  11. 11. Mapping A2K Advocacy Regulations & Institutions Production Models & Public Services TechnologiesWednesday, December 29, 2010 11
  12. 12. Categories of Knowledge Food & Health Education & Science Culture & Media Communications & InfrastructureWednesday, December 29, 2010 12
  13. 13. Food & Health Agriculture Genetic Resources Public HealthWednesday, December 29, 2010 13
  14. 14. Agriculture Regulations: GMOs & Patents Production: Open Research Tools Technology: Terminator Seeds Institutions: Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) administered by the Conference of Parties (COP); the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) at the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); and the Union for the Protection of Plant Varieties (UPOV). NGOs: Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN), ActionAid, the Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL); Biological Innovation for an Open Society (BIOS) project based at the Center for the Application for Molecular Biology to International Agriculture (CAMBIA)Wednesday, December 29, 2010 14
  15. 15. Genetic Resources Regulations: Disclosure of Origin Production: Community Benefit-Sharing Technology: Knowledge Registries Institutions: CBD; CGRFA; UPOV; Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (IGC) at WIPO NGOs: GRAIN; Action Aid; CIEL; BIOS; Erosion, Technology and Concentration (ETC) and Third World Network (TWN); Archaeological Markup Language of the Alexandria Archive InstituteWednesday, December 29, 2010 15
  16. 16. Public Health Regulations: Access to Medicines Production: Innovation Prize Funds Technology: Neglected Diseases Research Institutions: Intergovernmental Working Group on Public Health (IGWG) at the WHO NGOs: Medicines Sans Frontiéres (MSF); Knowledge Ecology International (KEI); IBM’s World Community Grid; Africa@Home’s Malariacontrol.netWednesday, December 29, 2010 16
  17. 17. Education & Science Scientific Research Educational Materials Libraries & ArchivesWednesday, December 29, 2010 17
  18. 18. Scientific Research Regulations: Database Rights Production: Open Access Journals Technology: Distributed Computing Institutions: European Directive on Database Rights NGOs: Biomed Central; Public Library of Science (PLoS); National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) in IndiaWednesday, December 29, 2010 18
  19. 19. Educational Materials Regulations: Exceptions to and Limitations on Copyright Production: Open Educational Resources Technology: Low-cost laptopsWednesday, December 29, 2010 19
  20. 20. Libraries & Archives Regulations: Digital Copyright Production: Access to Information Technology: Digital ArchivesWednesday, December 29, 2010 20
  21. 21. Culture & Media Cultural Production Software Engineering CensorshipWednesday, December 29, 2010 21
  22. 22. Culture Regulations: Global Public Sphere Production: Creative Commons Technology: Peer ProductionWednesday, December 29, 2010 22
  23. 23. Software Regulations: Software Patents Production: Free & Open Source Technology: Digital Rights ManagementWednesday, December 29, 2010 23
  24. 24. Censorship Regulations: Global Internet Freedom Production: Blogging & Social Networking Technology: Anonymity ToolsWednesday, December 29, 2010 24
  25. 25. Communications & Infrastrucutre Information & Communications Technologies (ICTs) Network Infrastructure InformationWednesday, December 29, 2010 25
  26. 26. ICTs for Development Universal Access Spectrum Policy Mobile InternetWednesday, December 29, 2010 26
  27. 27. Network Infrastructure Regulations: Internet Governance Production: Open Standards Technology: Internationalized Domain NamesWednesday, December 29, 2010 27
  28. 28. Information Regulations: Freedom of Information Laws Production: Network Neutrality Technology: e-GovernmentWednesday, December 29, 2010 28
  29. 29. Mobilizing Against ACTA Conflation of Piracy & Counterfeiting Global Information Customs Policing by Internet Intermediaries Three Strikes (Graduated Response) Confiscation of Generic MedicinesWednesday, December 29, 2010 29
  30. 30. Background History of ACTA Anti-Counterfeiting Congress. Australia. 2004. World Customs Organization (WCO) Standards Employed by Customs for Unified Rights Enforcement (SECURE) Initiative US STOP! Initiative (Strategy on Targeting Organised Piracy) (Oct. 2004) Bi-lateral and regional trade agreements US-Korea & EU-Korea FTAs EU-US Strategy on the Enforcement of IPRWednesday, December 29, 2010 30
  31. 31. Pluri-lateral Agreement Initial Negotiating Partner Countries: EU, US, Japan, Switzerland; Australia, Canada, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and United Arab Emirates. Current Negotiating Partners: Australia, Canada, the European Union, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, and United StatesWednesday, December 29, 2010 31
  32. 32. Counterfeiting & Piracy Purposely blurred & misleading Perpetuating Incumbent Business Models concentrated in multi-national corporations Consumer protection justification in Trademark vs. propertization of incentive regulations European Parliament Common Resolution, voted 633-13.Wednesday, December 29, 2010 32
  33. 33. Global Information Customs Ex-Officio Authority for Border Guards New Internet Governance regime Harmonization of maximilized legal rules Privatization of oversight Forcing changes in national laws Laptop searches & privacy/due processWednesday, December 29, 2010 33
  34. 34. Anti-Circumvention Regulations Exportation of the DMCA Legal Fortification of Technological Locks Asymmetry of IP protection & exceptions Automation of adjudication Abuse of technological control Anti-competitive leveraging of ancillaryWednesday, December 29, 2010 34
  35. 35. Intermediary Liability Notice and Takedown systems Due Process Right to Appeal Internet Disconnection Defining Repeat Infringers Filtering & Monitoring ObligationsWednesday, December 29, 2010 35
  36. 36. Criminalization of Copyright Overemphasis on deterrence Shift of enforcement from private parties to the state Organized crime vs. alternative distribution models Not knowingly engaged in infringement Undermining Legitimacy of the LawWednesday, December 29, 2010 36
  37. 37. Civil Enforcement Expansion of definition of piracy Beyond purposes of commercial advantage or personal profit Mandatory Injunctions undermines Collective licensing solutions Third party liability Statutory DamagesWednesday, December 29, 2010 37
  38. 38. International Relations Pluri-lateralism - Coalition of the Willing Bypassing Legislative Processes Expansion of executive power Trade Advisory Groups for foreign trade policy Not about trade, but enforcement coordination Faith-based policy-makingWednesday, December 29, 2010 38
  39. 39. Impact on Developing Countries Ratcheting up international norms Exclusion from norm-setting process Applied in bi-lateral & regional negotiations Interconnectivity of world trade - in-transit Border seizures - generic medicines Setting new standards for national implementationWednesday, December 29, 2010 39
  40. 40. TRIPs Article 13 Members shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder.Wednesday, December 29, 2010 40
  41. 41. Exceptions & Limitations to Copyright balance the interests of creators of intellectual works and the users’ rights to use protected works to further creative endeavour, learning and research. link with fundamental human rights: equality, the right to education, freedom of expression and the right to access culture and share in scientific advancement. legal instrument harmonizing minimum standards of exceptions and limitationsWednesday, December 29, 2010 41
  42. 42. Treaty for the Visually Impaired make an accessible format of the work exceptions extended to for-profit institutions circumvention of technological measures importation and exportation of works database on availability of works orphaned worksWednesday, December 29, 2010 42
  43. 43. Innovation in Digital Education Bridging the physical and temporal gaps between students and centers of learning. Provide new materials to the classroom that previously were unavailable or impractical. Providing teachers and students new ways of learning information and interacting with educational objects Transforming the way in which student work is evaluated, both in the classroom and outside.Wednesday, December 29, 2010 43
  44. 44. Taxonomy on Educational Exceptions & Limitations Standards vs. Rules Rule-based approach: bright-line divides between unauthorized acts of infringements and permitted uses Standards-based approach: adopt a balancing test approach Constraint Clauses Actor Purpose Context ActionWednesday, December 29, 2010 44
  45. 45. 1. Actor limits who may take advantage of the exception students, teachers, educational institutions accreditation barriers and informal educationWednesday, December 29, 2010 45
  46. 46. 2. Purpose control the breadth of exception without the type of content that it covers or actions that can be done with it personal use non-profit status teaching educational examinationsWednesday, December 29, 2010 46
  47. 47. 3. Context contexts within which exceptions can take place geographical (i.e., classroom-setting) non-geographic (i.e., educational institution)Wednesday, December 29, 2010 47
  48. 48. 4. Action Quantity of copying i.e., not more than 1% of work Type of copy, examples: reprographic copying; handwritten or typewritten copy single, personal copies up to 1,000 wordsWednesday, December 29, 2010 48
  49. 49. E&L Advocacy International Law Treaty for the Visually Impaired Declarations Free Culture Forum Copyright for Creativity Paris Accord Projects IP Watch List Copyright WatchWednesday, December 29, 2010 49
  50. 50. Thank You http://www.eff.orgWednesday, December 29, 2010 50