Digital Storytelling:Narratives for the 21st CenturyStories move in circles they don’t move in straightlines…there are stories inside stories, betweenstories, and finding your way through them is aseasy and as hard as finding your way home. Source: Digital Storytelling Cookbook Kristen R. Stephens, Ph.D. Duke University
What is Digital Storytelling?• The practice of using computer-based tools to tell stories.• Digital stories usually contain some mixture of computer-based images, text, recorded audio narration, video clips and/or music.• They can vary in length, but most of the stories used in education typically last between two and ten minutes.
So Easy… Even WE Can Do It! Hugh(The Expert) Kristen(Novice)Susan(The Recruit)
Benefits for Teachers & LearnersDigital Stories …• Serve as a multi-dimensional assessment tool (Content AND Skill Mastery)• Foster innovative teaching and learning methods that integrate technology, problem-based learning, and higher order thinking skills• Integrate 21st Century Skills• Support different types of intelligences and learning styles• Foster creativity• Engage learners in individual and group projects that result in academically-oriented social event
All six of the National Education TechnologyStandards (NETS) for students are addressed by digital storytelling1. Creativity and innovation2. Communication and collaboration3. Research and information fluency4. Critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making5. Digital citizenship6. Technology operations and concepts
Kinds of Stories…• Personal Narratives – About someone important – An event in my life – Place in my life – What I do• Discipline-Based – Big ideas/themes within a content area – Demonstrating content knowledge – Enrichment /depth and breadth of a topic within a content area or unit• Combination of Personal Narrative and Discipline-Based
Script Writing Elements• Point of View• Dramatic Question or Hook• Emotional Content• Economy• Voice• Soundtrack• Pacing
The Dramatic Question or Hook• Established suspense and creates a story arc• Usually a statement at the beginning of the story— often the first sentence.• Creates a question in the mind of the people who are listening to the story.• The hook that draws in the listener. The listener wants to know more about the situation.• Example: When I was younger I confused friendship with popularity.
Emotional ContentStar Points1. Who are the main characters of the story? Include yourself.2. Where is the story set? It could be in more than one place.3. Think of your story as a mini-movie running in your head. How do you feel at the beginning of the story?4. What happens during the most important moment of the story?5. How does this event (or realization) change your life, or the way you feel about the world?In the center of the star: Write the answer to: Why do you want to tell this particular story?Underneath the star: Begin writing the first few sentences of your story.
Economy• Digital stories are short. Great stories are often just 200 words long.• They take a poetic form where the writer must be very thoughtful about every word, phrase, and pause.• During the editing phase, prune away ideas that are redundant or do not contribute to the central focus of the story.• Keep in mind that editing can also be informed by visual narrative (i.e., descriptive language can be deleted altogether because an image will convey the same information)
Story Circle• Guidelines for participating in a story: – The storyteller is allowed to tell or read their complete story without any interruption. – Feedback should always begin with a specific affirmation about the story. – Suggestions are couched by saying “If it were my story, I ...”• If your students need more structure, you can give them specific aspects of the digital story on which to comment: – What I liked about your story... – What stood out about the story... – What I didn’t understand about the story... – The feeling I got from the story... – Your story makes me think of these pictures/images...
Ideas for Using Digital Stories in the Classroom • Novel Study • Content-Specific Presentations • End-of-Unit Assessment Tool (Summative) • Writing Assignments (reflections, journals, critiques, essay, etc.) • Autobiography • Documentary • Commentary • Others?