How do geographers look at the world?How do geographers map the world around them?
Cartography is the science of creating maps.“Carto” means paper and “graphy” meanswriting. The science and practice of mapmaking is paper-writing.The first maps were created thousands ofyears ago and have since become elaboratetechnological wonders.
Geographers use maps to display more than justlocations and shapes. Maps can display social data such as whether acarbonated product is either “soda” or “pop.” Type into Google a search for “soda vs. pop” andview the results. This leads us to the genres and types of maps…
There are two major genres of maps• Reference Used to identify locations and places and their geographicalfeatures Example: Topographic maps, road maps, regional maps• Thematic Used to show space, patterns, distribution, movement, andrelative location Example: Map showing elk migrations across Canada, mapidentifying income levels, soda vs. pop
• Right now you have a map in your mind ofhow to get to the nearest shopping mall, orhow to get to your friend’s house, or how toget to school. These maps are called mentalmaps.• These places (malls, houses, schools) areactivity spaces. Activity spaces are places weperform our day to day activities.
• The skill of reading a map is not something we areborn with.• You must understand the characteristics of mostmaps:– Title (Name for the map)– Key/Legend (Explanatory table of symbols)– Orientation/Compass (Identifies cardinal directions)– Scale (the unit and size of measurement on the map)– Credited sources (source of data)– Purpose (why is the map important?)
Scale is an important part of any map. Scaledictates how much detail should be placed ona small piece of paper.There are three different types of scales• Graphical scale-• Fractional scale (representative fraction) ex. 1:10,000• Verbal scale- “One inch equals 1,000 miles”
Locating Places on Earth
Latitude lines run east to west but measure distances north and south of theEquator (0°). Also called parallels.The Equator splits the Earth into the northern and southern hemispheres.EquatorPlaces located north of the Equator have a north latitude(N) address.Places located south of the Equator have a south latitude(S) address.
Longitude lines run north to south but measure distances west to eastof the Prime Meridian (0°). Also called meridians.The Prime Meridian and the 180° line split the Earth into eastern andwestern hemispheres.Prime Meridian (0°)Places located east of the Prime Meridian have an east longitude (E) address.Places located west of the Prime Meridian have a west longitude (W) address.
Northern HemisphereSouthern HemisphereEquator
Western Hemisphere Eastern HemispherePrime Meridian
Coordinates provide the absolute location of a specificreference point. Coordinates are written with latitude first then longitude. Coordinates are labeled based on a point’s location in theN, S, E, or W hemispheres. The grid of latitude and longitude is broken down intodegrees°, minutes’, and seconds’’. There are many ways to present coordinates:• Degrees, minutes, and seconds 65° 24 12.1674", 8° 10 26.508"• Degrees and decimal minutes 65 24.2028, 8 10.4418• Decimal degrees 65.40338, 8.17403
Prime MeridianEquatorLongitudeLatitudeNew York City Coordinates:41°8′44″N 73°59′42″WBeijing Coordinates:39.9100° N 116.4000° ESydney Coordinates:-33.86148, 151.20548
At this time pause this lesson andreturn to the Moodle andcomplete the CoordinateAssignmentReturn to the lesson whencompleted
Longitude is an important tool used to calculatetime because the Earth (a sphere) is broken into360° of longitude. We let every 15° of longitude equal one timezone and we end up with 24 time zones, or, onefor each hour of an Earth day. An international committee declared Greenwich,England as the master reference time for all ofEarth. This is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)or Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
When you cross the International Date Line(follows 180° longitude for the most part) youeither go back one day (moving eastward) orforward one day (moving westward). This means it can be 10am on Tuesday inHonolulu, Hawaii while at the same time it is 6amon Wednesday in Sydney, Australia. Some countries have elected to move either eastor west of the date line. See the following map:InternationalDate LineGreenwichMean Time(GMT or UTC)
• Cartography is the science of making maps• There are two genres of maps: reference and thematic• Mental maps are parts of the world you memorize to live inyour activity spaces• Most maps have six essential characteristics• Most maps use a coordinate grid system of latitude andlongitude (N, S, E, W hemispheres)• The Earth is divided into 24 time zones around the PrimeMeridian (Greenwich Mean Time) and the 180° longitude(International Date Line).
Cartography Reference Maps Thematic Maps Mental Maps Activity Spaces Characteristics of Maps Latitude Parallels Equator Hemispheres Longitude Meridians Prime Meridian Coordinates Time Zones Greenwich Mean Time (UTC) International Date Line
Maps:Image: Public Domain-http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1794_Samuel_Dunn_Wall_Map_of_the_World_in_Hemispheres_-_Geographicus_-_World2-dunn-1794.jpgScale:Image: Public Domain- http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_scale_-_8km,_5mi.pngLatitude and Longitude:Image: Public Domain- http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Globe_Atlantic.svgLatitude:Image: Public Domain- http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Latitude_lines.svgLongitude:Image: Public Domain- http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Longitude_(PSF).pngGlobe:Image: Public Domain- http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CIA_Political_World_Map_2002.jpgHemispheres:Image: Public Domain- http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CIA_Political_World_Map_2002.jpgHemispheres 2:Image: Public Domain- http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CIA_Political_World_Map_2002.jpgApplication:Image: Public Domain- http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CIA_Political_World_Map_2002.jpgTelling Time Continued:Image- Public Domain: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Standard_time_zones_of_the_world.png