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Intro to statistics


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Intro to statistics

  1. 1. What is Statistics?
  2. 2. Statistics Is…. • Science and art of learning through data • Data are numbers with a context
  3. 3. Probability • Study of chance behavior through data
  4. 4. Sample vs. Population • Population is the large group made up of many individuals • Sample is a smaller group of individuals chosen from the population
  5. 5. Where do you get good data? • Internet websites that have collected it for you (available data) • • • • • You can collect your own data using the prescribed methods explained in this course
  6. 6. Some methods to collect data • Surveys • Observational studies • Experiments • Each of these will be studied in greater detail later in the course in Unit 2
  7. 7. Data Analysis • Characteristics of an individual are known as variables • Objects described by a set of data are known as individuals
  8. 8. The 6 W’s & the H • Who are the individuals that you have data from • What are the variables • Why? (What is your underlying question) • When? • Where did you get the data from? • How did you gather the data? • By Whom was the data gathered?
  9. 9. Types of Variables • Categorical (Qualitative) Variables • Describe a quality that the variables have, you can easily split the data into categories • Quantitative Variables • Gives a numerical value for a variable (You can take the average of them)
  10. 10. Distribution of a Quantitative Variable • The pattern of variation of the numerical values of a quantitative variable is known as its distribution • We can describe a distribution by its center, shape and spread • We will discuss distributions in much greater detail later in the course mostly in Units 2, 4, and 5
  11. 11. Data Anaylsis • Examine a variable by itself first • Study relationships among variables • Utilize graphs and number summaries to help organize data to make sense
  12. 12. Types of Graphs (to be studied in Unit 1) Qualitative: Bar Graph Side-by-side Bar Graph Pie Chart Quantitative: Dotplot Stemplot Boxplot Histogram Ogive Scatterplot
  13. 13. Probability • Probability is usually unpredictable in the short run but is regular and very predictable in the long run • We will study probability and long run behavior in Unit 3 of the course
  14. 14. Statistical Inference (Units 4&5) • How to draw conclusions from data • Utilized in medical studies, political polling • Allows you to make predictions and conclusions • We must understand that we cannot be certain about our conclusions in statistics so there is always room for error