Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Pedagogical Considerations in Developing an Online Tutorial in Information Literacy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Pedagogical Considerations in Developing an Online Tutorial in Information Literacy


Published on

Presentation followed by discussion on wed 23 Feb 2011, during the Journal Club meeting at the infolit iSchool, the virtual space of the University of Sheffield in the UK.

Presentation followed by discussion on wed 23 Feb 2011, during the Journal Club meeting at the infolit iSchool, the virtual space of the University of Sheffield in the UK.

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide
  • Thank you all for coming here today. My name is Loreena Sandalwood. Outside Second Life, I am Eleni Zazani and work as a Learning Support Adviser at Birkbeck College Library, University of London.I will summarise the main points of the paper, and then open the discussionToday's paper is Skagen, T.,Torras, M., Kavli, S., Mikki, S., Hafstad, S., & Hunskår, I. (2009). Pedagogical Considerations in Developing an Online Tutorial in Information Literacy. Communications in Information Literacy, 2(2).Available at is also a notice in this room where you can get a notecard.I sent out a few questions along with the invitation to this meeting:**Are you involved in creating online tutorials/learning Objects? ****Would you consider more “didactic conditions” while planning online tutorials? ****What standards (IL of pedagogies), if any, do you use? ****While planning online tutorials or learning objects, do you find it difficult to apply standards? **** Which is your favourite software/platform? ****Are there any Information Literacy barriers? ****Do online tutorials replace face-to-face Information Literacy sessions? **and in terms of the article itself...** What strengths or weaknesses do you see in this paper? **Today’s paper explains how the “Didactic Relation/ or Relationship model” was used to design an online tutorial. The tutorial is called “Søk & Skriv” ('Search and Write' in English) From this point on, I will refer to it as “Search and Write” The English version of the Tutorial (Search & write) can be found at tutorial was the final product of the Norwegian project 'Digital Literacy through Flexible Learning' (2004-2006)It was designed to enable Distance Learning students to improve their Information and Digital Literacy skills and to also show them the way to “learn-how-to-learn”.The authors, Maria CarmeTorras et al, explain that they used the “Didactic Relation Model” as a framework for planning the content of the online Tutorial.
  • To make sense of the Didactic Relation Model we need to explain what “Didactic” means.The first slide on the display prim explains exactly what “Didactic” means. The etymology of the word refers to the Greek origin of the word “διδακτικός”.In short didactic means preceptive. It’s not about the action (verb: to teach) but the way we teach Having this in mind the model is not about the stages of teaching, etc. But the way we plan the lesson and the all these elements we take into consideration for planning.
  • A General form of the Didactic Relation Model was originally invented by the Norwegian educational researchers Bjørndal and Lieberg (1978),  and then two other Researchers, Hilde Hiim and Else Hippe, built upon the model implementing constructivist dimensions.They defined the basic elements that we need to take into consideration while planning teaching. These elements are called Didactic Conditions or Didactic Categories. The third slide shows you that the basic Didactic conditions of the model are:The learning conditionsThe SettingsThe learning goalsThe contentThe learning processAnd finally the Assessment
  • The model does NOT only focus on these basic aspects for planning but also on the RELATIONS between the different aspects. The arrows show that all aspects are mutually dependent; changes in one aspect affect all the other aspects ...The next slide briefly explains the way the authors interpreted the Model and used it for the “Search and Write” online tutorial....
  • The “Learning Conditions” include the main target audience (in this case Distance Education Students), some general demographics of this Audience, like the students’ social and cultural background, and of course Access issues in terms of technology and special needs.The tutorial can be also used by on campus students. It was considered very important that distance education students need to be able to relate their previous experience and knowledge to their studies.In the “Settings” condition the designers took external factors into consideration, like governmental efforts to promote ICT and Literacy skills and to promote a student-centred and process-centred education.Other internal “setting” factors, like the institutional VLE, educational policies, use of online resources, etc played a role in the design of the Tutorial.“Learning Goals” is what we want students to be able to accomplish. In this case the designers implemented two levels of competence and defined specific learning goals based on the American IL standards for each component.The American standards can be found here “Content” condition fosters the two levels of the “learning goals”. A basic level and an advanced level. The Advanced level consists of 5 Learning Objects (LOs)Other IL models and educational theories were considered while designing these LOs, for example Kuhlthau’s ISP model (Information Research Process).For those who regularly attend these Journal Club Meetings, you may remember that Pancha led the first discussion and explained the ISP model (29 Sep 2010)For those interested, the paper on the ISP model can be found at content promotes the students’ learning-by-doing and learning-by-reflecting and includes several activities to encourage them.The “Learning Process” condition adopts all the aforementioned standards and theories to address both intellectual and emotional stages of the learning process and its activities encourage students to interact with their peers, librarians, tutors, etc through dialogue and collaboration rather than isolation.Finally the “Assessment” condition refers to what extent the learning goals have been met. For that reason while planning the tutorial the authors took into account both the product and the process. The Product refers to what students have learnt after completing the designated learning goals.“Search and Write” focuses on a process-oriented Assessment,and online feedback is given to students on their performance in solving exercises.
  • So that was a summary of the paper and we can now discuss ....
  • Reference was given to explore more on the CIBER research outcomes at: Google Generation II: web behaviour experiments with the BBC by David Nicholas, Ian Rowlands, David Clark, Peter Williams (pp. 28 - 45) Aslib proceedings Volume 63 issue 1 (2011)
  • A reference for further reading was given:Systematic Design of Instruction, 7ed, Walter Dick, Lou Carey, James O. Carey, ISBN-10: 0205585566 ISBN-13: 9780205585564 Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, 2009; 432 pp
  • The questions above, were raised during the discussion.
  • The questions above, were raised during the discussion.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Pedagogical Considerations in Developing an Online Tutorial in IL
      Journal Club Discussion Meeting
      Loreena Sandalwood
      a.k.a. Eleni Zazani
      Infolit ischool, Wed 23 Feb 2011
    • 2. “Didactic” defined
      Having the character or manner of a teacher or instructor; characterised by giving instruction; having the giving of instruction as its aim or object; instructive, preceptive.
      Pronunciation:  /dɪˈdæktɪk/
      Etymology:  modern < Greek διδακτικ-όςapt at teaching, < διδάσκεινto teach.
      Source: didactic, adj. and n. Second edition, 1989; online version November 2010. <>; accessed 15 February 2011. Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1895.
    • 3. Learning Conditions
      Learning Goals
      Learning Process
    • 4. The Didactic Relationship Model
      Learning Conditions
      Learning Goals
      Learning Process
    • 5. The “Search and Write” Didactic Conditions
      Relate their studies to their
      Previous experiences
      Distance Education Students
      National Program For Digital
      Literacy 2004-2008 (Norway)
      Undergraduate Level
      Information-Literate &
      Digitally-Literate Students
      Postgraduate Level
      Learning Objects (LOs)
      Encourages Interaction,
      Dialogue and Collaboration
      among peers
      Based on Social-constructivist
      Online Feedback is
      Integrated in the VLE.
      Educators initiate
    • 6. The final presentation will incorporate your input from the discussion anonymously and be made available at
    • 7. Participants formed an International Discussion Group...
      ...with a multicultural perspective, from:
    • 8. The term “Didactic”
      Both in the UK and the USA, the term brings transmissive connotations.
      It tends to coincide with the action “to teach” but in a more “teacherly way”
    • 9. Are you involved in creating online tutorials/learning Objects?
      The majority of the participants are designing and developing online tutorials and LOs
      for HE and FE students
      for On and Off campus usage
      to be used by a wide range
      of disciplines
    • 10. The Didactic Relation Model ...
      Was seen as
      usefulnot only for planning online tutorials but also for planning teaching in general
      Flexible; differentinstitutionscould adapt it to their individual circumstances
      Image available under the Creative Commons Licence at
    • 11. Are there any Information Literacy barriers?
      Some aspects of Information Literacy seem more suited to tutorial format than others
      Student-centred approaches for designing tutorials may fail as it is difficult for many students to recognise their information gap
    • 12. “Recognising the information need“ is very difficult to teach in a tutorial!
      Are there any Information Literacy barriers?
      Image: Information skills model available at
    • 13. Are there any Information Literacy barriers?
      "Google Generation" searchers are more likely to cut and paste the words they are given while web-searching
    • 14. Other standards (IL or pedagogies), used for planning tutorials
      ADDIE approach
      Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) process
      The Dick and the Carey Systems Approach Model for Designing Instruction
      Focus on Learners’ needs and contexts
    • 15. Other Didactic conditions of factors to be considered while creating online Tutorials
      Time needed
      for the tutorial to be completed (length) by the students;
      for the instructor/ lecturer to go through a process-centred assessment
    • 16. We liked this paper because ...(1)
      It addressed the situation & planning of the online tutorial
      (not often seen in articles about tutorials)
      Proposes a “Process-centred assessment”
      A very useful approach. Getting students to talk and reflect about the process through blogs reveals whether or not they have learnt. It can also provide a more holistic assessment rather than focusing on competencies and learning outcomes.
    • 17. “Process-centred assessment” vs. Quizzes
      Quizzes are difficult to design
      Following links can be seen as a race rather than a learning experience
      Quizzes as a formative self-assessment exercises have proved more effective rather than as a summative assessment.
      Students are not engaged with quizzes if they are not marked.
      Image: Geek quiz, available under the Creative Commons License at
    • 18. We liked this paper because ...(2)
      It points up how impossible it is to create one tutorial for "everybody"
      Image: 3d boxes, available under the Creative Commons License at
    • 19. What we would like to have seenin this paper....(1)
      How the designers work with different academic staff and disciplines to embed the tutorials within courses
      Whether they run a separate course or module on IL
      How faculty in different disciplines use the tutorials differently
      Image: 3D Character and Question Mark, available under the Creative Commons License at
    • 20. What we would like to have seenin this paper....(2)
      Whether instructors are able to put emphasis on different aspects, while “Search & Write” are being used on face-to-face teaching.
      Evaluation of the project and whether distance education students found it useful and easy to follow.
      Any difficulties in finding partners and initiate discussions with students.
    • 21. Thank you for coming along!
      Pictures from the meeting and other events I have attended at
      I am sending tweets @EleniZazani
      Feel free to download the presentation from my Slideshareprofile
    • 22. Click on the “play” button to see a short video created by Sheila Webber
      Alternatively follow this link:
    • 23. Join us at the next Journal Club Meeting ...
    • 24. Wed 23 March
      It will feature Yazdan Mansourian, the Iranian researcher, talking
      about his information visibility model