Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Social Responsibility in Architectural Education
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Social Responsibility in Architectural Education

1,084
views

Published on

Sustainable development is a widely accepted strategic framework in city planning and urban green spaces have an important role in it. Beside, increasing empirical evidence indicates that the presence …

Sustainable development is a widely accepted strategic framework in city planning and urban green spaces have an important role in it. Beside, increasing empirical evidence indicates that the presence of natural areas contributes to the quality of life in many ways. Also, urban nature provides important social and psychological benefits to human societies, which enrich human life with meanings and emotions. In order to exemplify the importance of urban green spaces for sustainability this paper analyses some historical Persian gardens for environmental sustainability and citizens’ well-being. In this study, historical Persian Gardens were chosen due to their historical background as first sample of Iranian urban green spaces which are still being used successfully. Some results of a survey conducted among visitors of historical gardens in Iran are presented and discussed. The issues investigated people’s motives for visiting gardens and the emotional dimension involved in the experience of nature and its importance for people’s general well-being.


0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,084
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 2012 American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS, http://Get.to/Research Social Responsibility in Architectural Education a* Kimberly Kramer a Faculty of Architecture, Chiang Mai University, THAILANDARTICLEINFO A B S T RA C TArticle history: As designers of the built environment, architects have aReceived April 02, 2012Received in revised form tremendous opportunity to make a positive impact on the lives of theJuly 10, 2012 ‘bottom billion’. However, in order to be effective agents of change,Accepted July 26, 2012 these designers must understand and appreciate the concept of socialAvailable online July 28, 2012 responsibility in architecture, and learn to implement it in their ownKeywords: work. This study seeks to determine the current state of socialEducation in built responsibility training in architectural education by examining theenvironment; curriculum requirements set by a number of national architecturalHuman and social factors. education accrediting boards to determine whether they include training in the precepts of social responsibility in design. Because these curriculum requirements largely determine the topics and concepts that students will be exposed to in the course of their architectural education, improving this aspect of architectural education is an important step toward maximizing the profession’s contribution to the global effort to improve the lives of the ‘bottom billion’. 2012 American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences.1. Introduction  ‘Architectural education should have two basic purposes: to produce competent, creative, critically minded and ethical professional designers/builders; and to produce good world*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 295Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf
  • 2. citizens who are intellectually mature, ecologically sensitive and socially responsible.’ -International Union of Architects (UIA, 2008) As designers of the built environment, architects have a tremendous opportunity to make apositive impact on the lives of the ‘bottom billion’. However, in order to be effective agents ofchange, these designers must understand and appreciate the concept of social responsibility inarchitecture, and learn to implement it in their own work. Including this subject in the standardarchitecture curriculum is an important step toward this goal. This study seeks to determine thecurrent state of social responsibility training in architectural education. Social responsibility in architecture may be defined in a number of ways. According to PaulGoldberger, an architecture critic for The New Yorker, ‘Social responsibility in architecture is, atleast in part, a matter of believing, passionately and absolutely, in the potential of architecture toimprove the quality of life.’ (Goldberger, 2002) This study will focus on four particular aspects ofsocially responsible architectural practice. Sustainability: A considerable amount of attention has been focused recently on sustainableand environmentally responsible design. This is an important aspect of social responsibility inarchitecture, and while substantial progress has been made in this area, there is still significantroom for improvement. Responsibility to consider the needs of communities and the wider public: Architects have aresponsibility to consider the needs of local communities and the wider public as projectstakeholders and to reconcile the needs of these groups with those of a project’s client, owner anduser groups. By understanding and embracing this responsibility, architects have the opportunity,within their professional roles, to become community advocates and agents of positive socialchange. Ethics: Architects have a duty to understand the ethical implications of their design decisionsin regard to social, political, environmental and cultural issues. Understanding these implicationsempowers architects to make responsible decisions. Civic engagement through public service: Although architects have a unique and useful skill 296 Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine
  • 3. set that enables them to serve as important contributors and leaders within society, civicengagement and public service in architecture is still significantly underdeveloped. Byintegrating civic engagement and public service into the practice of architecture, architects canapply their professional skills to the benefit of society. While these issues certainly overlap in some respects, they also represent four distinct aspectsof the socially responsible practice of architecture. These four aspects describe significant waysin which architects help to improve society’s quality of life through responsible practice andeducating future architects in these aspects of social responsibility will significantly affect theprofession’s ability to take up the moral challenge of addressing the needs of the ‘bottom billion’.2. Approach  The curriculum requirements set by architectural education accrediting boards around theworld largely determine the topics and concepts that students will be exposed to in the course oftheir architectural education. This study examines the curriculum requirements set by a number ofnational architectural education accrediting boards to determine whether they include training inthe precepts of social responsibility in design. The countries included in this study are those forwhich English-language accreditation criteria documentation is readily available.3. Results  For each country, the relevant accrediting authority and specific accreditation criteria areidentified and examined below. The results are summarized in Table 10, at the end of the section.3.1 Australia  The accreditation of architectural academic programmes in Australia is jointly conducted bythe Architects Accreditation Council of Australia (AACA) and the Royal Australian Institute ofArchitects (RAIA). (AACA and RAIA, 2006) According to the Australian Architecture ProgramAccreditation and Recognition Procedure, published jointly by these organizations, ‘Review ofprograms is undertaken with close reference to both the Architects Accreditation Council ofAustralia National Competency Standards in Architecture (NCSA 01) and The Royal Australian*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 297Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf
  • 4. Institute of Architects Education Policy. Extracts from these documents jointly form theAccreditation and Recognition Criteria.’ (AACA and RAIA, 2006) The Accreditation and Recognition Criteria are organized into a list of numbered‘Performance Criteria.’ Table 1 lists the Performance Criteria relevant to social responsibility inarchitecture. Table 1: Australia: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation, Extracted from the AACA National Competency Standards (AACA and RAIA, 2006). Performance Text of Performance Criteria Criteria # The concept is informed by an understanding of the history of architectural thought and 06 traditions of buildings and construction and by relevant current social and environmental concerns The impact of the design concept upon the environment and the community is assessed 11 and heeded Respect for the natural environment and awareness of the issues of sustainability are 13 demonstrated in the conceptual design The interests of building users, the community and other relevant groups are 21 investigated and reconciled with the project brief 22 Human, social, environmental and contextual issues are researched and addressed 54 Interests of building users, the community and other relevant groups are reconfirmed Cultural factors relating to the project are researched and their influence and 86 implications reported 87 Community participation processes are understood and recommendations made Relevant environmental issues relating to the site and its location are identified and 88 reported An understanding of professional ethics as they apply to the practice of architecture is 145 demonstrated and ethical practice observed. An additional section of the Accreditation and Recognition Criteria includes PerformanceCriteria extracted from the Royal Australian Institute of Architects’ Education Policy. Table 2lists the Performance Criteria relevant to social responsibility. Together, the Performance Criteria outlined in Tables 1 and 2 constitute the required trainingfor Australian architecture students in the precepts of social responsibility in design. Thesecriteria require students to develop a significant awareness and understanding of the environmentalimpacts of their designs. They also require a high level of awareness and understanding of 298 Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine
  • 5. community interests, needs and participation processes, encouraging students to consider the largersocial impact of their designs and their responsibility as designers to acknowledge, assess andaddress these issues and impacts. The criteria glance on the topic of professional ethics, but stopshort of encouraging students to understand and embrace the opportunity for civic engagement andpublic service in architecture.Table 2: Australia: Additional Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation, Extracted from RAIA Education Policy (AACA and RAIA, 2006). Performance Text of Performance Criteria Criteria # 2.3.i Ability to inform action through knowledge of natural systems and built environments An understanding of issues of ecological sustainability and design for reduction of 2.3.ii energy use and environmental impact An understanding of passive systems for thermal comfort, lighting and acoustics and 2.3.iv their relationship to active systems 2.4.1 An ability to inform action through knowledge of society, clients and users An understanding of the social context in which built environments are procured and 2.4.iii responsibilities to clients, the public and users Table 3: Britain: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (RIBA, 2010). Criteria # Text of Criteria The graduate will have an understanding of the relationship between people and GC5 buildings, and between buildings and their environment, and the need to relate buildings and the spaces between them to human needs and scale The graduate will have an understanding of the impact of buildings on the environment, GC5.2 and the precepts of sustainable design The graduate will have an understanding of the way in which buildings fit into their GC5.3 local context The graduate will have an understanding of the profession of architecture and the role of GC6 the architect in society, in particular in preparing briefs that take account of social factors The graduate will have an understanding of the nature of professionalism and the duties GC6.1 and responsibilities of architects to clients, building users, constructors, co-professionals and the wider society The graduate will have an understanding of the potential impact of building projects on GC6.3 existing and proposed communities*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 299Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf
  • 6. 3.2 Britain  The accreditation requirements for British architectural education programmes are publishedas the Criteria for Validation by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA). (RIBA, 2010)Table 3 lists the Criteria relevant to social responsibility. The RIBA accreditation criteria require students to understand the impacts of their projects onthe environment and communities as well as their duties and responsibilities as architects, not justto traditional project stakeholders but to the wider society. However, like the Australian criteria,the RIBA criteria stop short of encouraging students to understand and embrace the opportunity forcivic engagement and public service in architecture. While an understanding of the ethicalimplications of design decisions is not required in the educational portion of the validation criteria,it is discussed in the RIBA Professional Criteria required to sit the Professional PracticeExamination in Architecture.3.3 Canada  The Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB) assumes accreditation responsibilityfor University Schools of Architecture in Canada that offer a professional degree in architecture.(CACB, 2011) The accreditation criteria are published as the CACB Conditions and Proceduresfor Accreditation. (CACB, 2005) For the purposes of accreditation, graduating students mustdemonstrate awareness, understanding, or ability in a number of ‘Performance Criteria.’ Table 4lists the Performance Criteria relevant to social responsibility in architecture. Table 4: Canada: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (CACB, 2005). Performance Text of Performance Criteria Criteria # Environmental Conservation: Understanding of the basic principles of ecology and 13 architects responsibilities with respect to environmental and resource conservation in architecture and urban design Ethics and Professional Judgment: Awareness of the ethical issues involved in the 37 formation of professional judgments in architecture design and practice When conducting accreditation reviews, the CACB also requires educational institutions toaddress the perspectives of each of its constituencies. This includes public members, addressedby the ‘Architecture Education and Society’ requirement: 300 Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine
  • 7. ‘The programme must demonstrate that it not only equips students with an informed understanding of social and environmental problems but that it also develops their capacity to help address these problems with sound architecture and urban design decisions. Given its particular mission, the APR [Architecture Program Report] may cover such issues as: how students gain an informed understanding of architecture as a social art, including the complex processes carried out by the multiple stakeholders who shape built environments; the emphasis given to generating the knowledge that can mitigate social and environmental problems; how students gain an understanding of the ethical implications of built environment decisions; and how a climate of civic engagement is nurtured, including a commitment to professional and public service.’ (CACB, 2005). The CACB accreditation criteria require students to develop an understanding ofenvironmental responsibility in design, as well as an awareness of the ethical issues involved indesign and practice decisions. The Canadian criteria take a strong stance in demanding a focus oncivic engagement opportunities and responsibilities for architects. Though implied, architects’responsibility to consider the needs of the communities and the wider public is not specificallyaddressed.3.4 Hong Kong  Because of its size, Hong Kong takes a different approach to architectural educationaccreditation than most other countries. Rather than create a standard national set of criteria foraccreditation, the Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA), which is responsible for accreditingschools of architecture within Hong Kong, has simply made a list of schools whose architectureprograms are accredited. Within Hong Kong, this includes the Master of Architecture program atThe University of Hong Kong, and the Master of Architecture program at The Chinese Universityof Hong Kong. (HKIA, n.d.) The list also specifies overseas accreditation schemes which arerecognised as equivalent by the HKIA: the U.S. National Architectural Accrediting Board(NAAB), the Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA), the Architects AccreditationCouncil of Australia (AACA), and the People’s Republic of China National Board of ArchitecturalAccreditation (NBAA). (HKIA, n.d.)*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 301Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf
  • 8. A cursory examination of the two domestic masters programs accredited by the HKIA showsthat the University of Hong Kong Master of Architecture programme does not prioritise the topicof social responsibility within their programme, though they do mention that ‘the design thesis isan opportunity for students to conduct research in areas that overlap staff research activities,including architecture’s relationship to the environment, its impact on community, and its potentialto enrich culture’. (UHK, 2011) The Chinese University of Hong Kong’s Master of Architectureprogramme states that among the studios’ aims for its students in terms of professional competenceis that ‘the framework and outcomes of the studios should reflect the following aspects: awarenessof issues such as sustainability and economy’. However, this is the only mention of topics relatedto social responsibility in architecture. (CUHK, 2011; CUHK, 2010)3.5 India  In India, the Council of Architecture (COA) prescribes the standards of architectural educationrequired for granting recognized qualifications. These standards are published as the Council ofArchitecture – Minimum Standards of Architectural Education, which supplement the 1983 COARegulations. (COA, 2008) The Minimum Standards of Education were revised in 2008 to updatethe original 1983 document, which had no requirements for social responsibility education inarchitecture curricula. (COA, 2002) Within the Minimum Standards, the curriculum requirementsare organized into ‘Subjects for Examination’ in two stages. Table 5 lists the Subjects forExamination relevant to social responsibility. Table 5: India: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (COA, 2008). Subj. for Text of Subject for Examination Examination Stage 1 Understanding of Climate and its impact on architectural design, fundamentals of # 12 climatology and environmental studies Stage 1 Group subjects of specialisation: B. Eco Architecture # 18 Stage 2 Sustainability- Principles and methods, Energy conscious design ecological balance # xv conservation of natural resources, Solar passive architecture, Re-cycling Stage 2 Use of energy in buildings, Conserving energy, Solar passive and solar active systems, # xvi wind energy, Biomass energy, Re-cycling Stage 2 Environmental factors effecting human habitat such as climate, environmental pollutions, # xx environmental degradation, green cover etc. at the micro and macro scales 302 Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine
  • 9. The document also outlines a course of study for an Eco Architecture specialisation track atStage 2. While it is heartening to see the COA criteria updated to include the subject ofenvironmental responsibility in the standard architecture curriculum (this was lacking in the 1983document), the criteria still do not mention civic engagement and public service in architecture, orthe architect’s responsibility to consider the needs of communities and the wider public in additionto the traditional project stakeholders.3.6 Korea  The Korea Architectural Accrediting Board (KAAB) is responsible for accreditingarchitectural education programs within the Republic of Korea. The criteria for accreditation arepublished as the KAAB Conditions & Procedures for Professional Degree Programs inArchitecture. (KAAB, 2005) The KAAB accreditation conditions require each architecturalprogramme to demonstrate how it addresses a number of different perspectives. Table 6 liststhose relevant to social responsibility in architecture. Table 6: Korea: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (KAAB, 2005). Relevant conditions Perspective (for each condition, the following issues must be addressed) Registration Delivering issues of responsibility for the society and ethics (2.1.3) Profession Issues in reconciling the conflicts between architects’ obligation to their clients, the (2.1.4) society, and private enterprise. The program must promote student understanding in various social, environmental Society challenges and foster skills dealing with these issues through proper architectural and (2.1.5) urban design resolution Society Importance of ethical implications of built environment determinations (2.1.5) Society Issues in promoting civic engagement through commitment to professional and public (2.1.5) service Additional KAAB accreditation requirements are listed in the Conditions & Procedures as‘Student Performance Criteria’. Table 7 lists the Performance Criteria relevant to socialresponsibility.*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 303Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf
  • 10. Table 7: Korea: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (KAAB, 2005). Performance Text of Performance Criteria Criteria # Understanding of principles and theories of sustainability in designing and making of (2.2.2) 14 architecture and urban design decisions Ability of comprehensive architectural design based on collective pieces of information on (2.2.3) 17 natural, environmental factors and limitations with consideration for sustainability Understanding of ethical issues and responsibility as an architectural professional serving (2.2.5) 41 client in the context of society as a whole The KAAB Conditions & Procedures document begins with the same excerpt from theUNESCO/UIA Charter for Architectural Education which is quoted at the beginning of this study:‘Architectural education has two basic purposes: To produce competent, creative, critically mindedand ethical professionals and designers/builders; to produce good world citizens who areintellectually mature, ecologically sensitive and socially responsible.’ (KAAB, 2005) This is astrong statement of commitment to social responsibility in architectural education but it is anappropriate one for the KAAB accreditation criteria, which take a serious stance on the issue ofsocial responsibility in architectural education. The KAAB criteria require students to understandand address the issues of sustainability, ethical implications of design decisions, the architect’sresponsibility to society as a whole, and civic engagement through professional and public service.3.7 Malaysia  Architectural education accreditation in Malaysia is managed by the Board of ArchitectsMalaysia/Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM). The Malaysian criteria for accreditation, publishedin the Policy and Procedure for Accreditation of Architectural Programmes, are adopted from the2003 British Criteria for Validation jointly approved by the Royal Institute of British Architects(RIBA) and the Architects Registration Board (ARB). (LAM, 2005 [Appendix A]; RIBA, 2003)The criteria specify that all graduates must ‘have knowledge and ability in architectural designincluding ecological balance,’ and that they ‘comprehend thoroughly the architects’ roles andresponsibilities in society.’ (LAM, 2005) The LAM accreditation requirements are furtherclarified in Appendix A, organized as a list of learning outcomes. Table 8 lists the learningoutcomes relevant to social responsibility. 304 Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine
  • 11. Table 8: Malaysia: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (LAM, 2005, [Appendix A]). Learning Text of Learning Outcome Outcome # Knowledge of the principles of building technologies, environmental design and Part I - 2.1 construction methods, in relation to: human well-being; the welfare of future generations; the natural world; consideration of a sustainable environment An awareness of the influences on the contemporary built environment of individual Part I - 3.1 buildings, the design of cities, past and present societies and wider global issues Knowledge of the social, political, economic and professional context that guides Part II – 1.1 building construction An understanding of briefs and how to critically appraise them to ensure that the design Part II – 1.2 response is appropriate to site and context, and for reasons such as sustainability and budget Knowledge of climatic design and the relationship between climate, built form, Part II – 2.2 construction, life style, energy consumption and human well-being Understanding of building technologies, environmental design and construction methods Part II – 2.3 in relation to: human well-being; the welfare of future generations; the natural world; consideration of a sustainable environment Understanding of the influence on the contemporary built environment of individual Part II – 3.1 buildings, the design of cities, past and present societies and wider global issues Understanding of the inter-relationship between people, buildings and the environment Part II – 3.3 and an understanding of the need to relate buildings and the spaces between them to human needs and scale The LAM accreditation criteria require students to develop an understanding and knowledgeof sustainability but the other aspects of social responsibility in design are not addressed by thesecriteria.3.8 New Zealand  New Zealand uses the Australian National Competency Standards in Architecture underlicense. (McRae, 2011) Please refer to the ‘Australia’ section above for details of accreditationcriteria.3.9 Pakistan  The Pakistan Council of Architects & Town Planners’ (PCATP) accreditation criteria, aspublished in the Accreditation Guide provide only very general, loose guidance in terms ofexpected educational outcomes. (PCATP, 2008) According to Arif Balgaumi, principal architect*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 305Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf
  • 12. at a Pakistani architecture firm and honorary treasurer of the Institute of Architects Pakistan, this isbecause: ‘After remaining in the doldrums for many years, the profession of architecture in Pakistan is showing signs of staging a revival. Unfortunately, decades of neglect and apathy have meant that there has been no significant growth in the quality or capacity of architectural education in Pakistan. The need to establish new institutions of architectural education and to improve the quality of the existing ones has put tremendous pressure on the regulating agencies... to develop and enforce criteria that are realistic and yet provide the impetus to improve the quality of architectural education in the county.’ (Belgaumi, 2008) The only element of the PCATP Accreditation Guide which touches on social responsibility isthe following general guideline for External Interaction: ‘The institution should provide theenvironment, which fosters the personality of the students and provide them opportunities throughco-curricular and extracurricular activities and student services. These opportunities are to enablethe students to become responsible members of the society and should be readily accessible to thestudents.’ (PCATP, 2008)3.10 Singapore  Singapore’s approach to architectural education accreditation is similar to that taken by HongKong. Rather than create a full set of accreditation criteria, the Board of Architects (BOA) hasidentified two local programmes recognised by BOA for the purpose of registration. Theseprogrammes are the Bachelor of Architecture and Master of Architecture programmes at theNational University of Singapore. The Board has also identified a list of overseas programmes inarchitecture with accredited courses recognised for the purposes of professional registration inSingapore. (BOA, 2010) A cursory review of the curriculums of the two accredited domestic programmes shows that inthe Bachelor of Architecture programme, all students are required to take courses in ClimaticResponsive Architecture and Strategies for Sustainable Architecture. The programme also offersstudents the choice pursuing a concurrent degree program in Design Technology andSustainability. (NUS, 2008) The Master of Architecture Programme Information does not specifyany particular curriculum requirements related to social responsibility in design. (NUS, n.d.) 306 Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine
  • 13. 3.11 South Africa  South Africa’s architectural education programmes are validated by The South AfricanCouncil for the Architectural Profession (SACAP), according to their Guidelines for the Validationof Courses in Architecture. Rather than provide a specific list of learning outcomes and criteriarequired for validation, this document references the general criteria for higher education qualityassurance in South Africa (as outlined by the Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC)) andprovides guidelines based on international architectural accreditation standards: ‘In an international context criteria for validation should at least take account of the UIA/UNESCO Charter for Architectural Education, June 1996. For credibility in the international sphere within which architects from the Republic of South Africa operate (mainly Africa, the Middle East and Europe), broad conformity should also be sought with the RIBA Procedures, Criteria and Policies for the International Validation of Courses, Programs and Examinations in Architecture (February 2001) and the CAA Procedures and Criteria, Qualifications in Architecture Recommended for Recognition by CAA.’ (SACAP, 2007) The referenced validation criteria cover a range of approaches to social responsibility trainingin architectural education. RIBA validation criteria are examined in the ‘Britain’ section above.Information about CAA and UIA criteria is presented in the ‘Future Directions – InternationalCollaboration’ section below.3.12 United States  In the United States, the architectural education accreditation process is administered by theNational Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). (NAAB, 2009) The 2009 NAAB Conditionsfor Accreditation require that: ‘students enrolled in the accredited degree program are prepared: to be active, engaged citizens; to be responsive to the needs of a changing world; to acquire the knowledge needed to address pressing environmental, social, and economic challenges through design, conservation and responsible professional practice; to understand the ethical implications of their decisions; to reconcile differences between the architect’s obligation to his/her client and the public; and to nurture a climate of civic engagement, including a commitment to professional and public service and leadership’ (NAAB, 2009)*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 307Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf
  • 14. Additional NAAB accreditation requirements are published in the Conditions forAccreditation as Student Performance Criteria. Table 9 lists the Performance Criteria relevant tosocial responsibility in design. Table 9: United States: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (NAAB, 2009). Performance Text of Performance Criteria Criteria # Leadership and Practice: Architects need to manage, advocate, and act legally, ethically and critically for the good of the client, society and the public. Student learning C aspirations include: Knowing societal and professional responsibilities; Integrating community service into the practice of architecture Human Behavior: Understanding of the relationship between human behavior, the C.2 natural environment and the design of the built environment. Client Role in Architecture: Understanding of the responsibility of the architect to elicit, C.3 understand, and reconcile the needs of the client, owner, user groups, and the public and community domains Leadership: Understanding of the techniques and skills architects use to work C.6 collaboratively in the building design and construction process and on environmental, social, and aesthetic issues in their communities Legal Responsibilities: Understanding of the architect’s responsibility to the public and the client as determined by registration law, building codes and regulations, professional C.7 service contracts, zoning and subdivision ordinances, environmental regulation, and historic preservation and accessibility laws Ethics and Professional Judgment: Understanding of the ethical issues involved in the C.8 formation of professional judgment regarding social, political and cultural issues in architectural design and practice Community and Social Responsibility: Understanding of the architect’s responsibility to C.9 work in the public interest, to respect historic resources, and to improve the quality of life for local and global neighbors In preparation for the 2009 update of the Conditions for Accreditation, NAAB convened anInternational/Global Task Group which created a prioritized list of issues to be considered indeveloping the 2009 Conditions. This task group identified ‘social responsibility’ as the numberone priority. (NAAB, 2008) This focus on the importance of introducing issues of socialresponsibility in architectural education is apparent in the final Conditions document. While the2004 NAAB Conditions already showed a strong commitment to issues of social responsibility inarchitectural education (NAAB, 2004), the 2009 document goes even further. The 2009 NAABaccreditation criteria require that students learn to understand and address the issues ofenvironmental responsibility in design, architects’ responsibilities to communities and the wider 308 Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine
  • 15. public, and the ethical implications of design decisions, and that accredited educational institutionsnurture a climate of civic engagement, including a commitment to professional and public serviceand leadership.3.13 Summary  Table 10 presents a summary of the country-specific accreditation information presentedabove. Table 10: Environmental and Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation, by Country Responsibility Accreditation Civic Engagement/ Country Sustainability to Community/ Ethics Organization Public Service Wider Public Australia AACA/RAIA --- Britain RIBA --- --- Canada CACB --- Hong Kong* HKIA India COA --- --- --- Korea KAAB Malaysia LAM --- --- --- New Zealand NZIA --- Pakistan PCATP --- --- --- --- Singapore* BOA South Africa* SACAP United States NAAB * Because Hong Kong, Singapore and South Africa do not use a published set of defined accreditation criteria, their requirements are not evaluated in this matrix4. Conclusion  The examination of individual country accreditation criteria shows that most countries (8 ofthe 9 examined in the matrix above) have now embraced environmental responsibility as a requiredelement of architectural education. This is an important issue for all of the world’s inhabitants,*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 309Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf
  • 16. but may be particularly important for the ‘bottom billions’, who are likely to be disproportionatelyaffected by climate change, resource shortages, and other environmental problems. Adoption ofstrict standards of environmental responsibility in design is a significant way for the architectureprofession to address the current and future challenges faced by the ‘bottom billion’, and it isheartening to see that this aspect of social responsibility is being almost universally acknowledgedand embraced. Requirements to teach architecture students about their responsibility to consider the needs ofcommunities and the wider public in design decisions and the ethical implications of designdecisions have not been as widely implemented (requirements for each of these aspects of sociallyresponsible design have been adopted by only 5 of the 9 countries examined in the matrix above).However, these aspects of social responsibility in design will also be very important as theprofession moves forward to address the needs of the ‘bottom billion’. By understanding andembracing their responsibility to community and public stakeholders, architects becomecommunity advocates and agents of positive social change. By understanding the ethicalimplications of their decisions in regard to social, political, environmental and cultural issues,architects become empowered to make responsible, well-reasoned design and professionaldecisions. Both of these aspects of well-informed social responsibility will be critical as theprofession moves forward to address the challenges faced by the ‘bottom billion’. Requirements to teach students about the importance of civic engagement and public servicein architectural practice are lagging even further behind, with adoption by only about 30% of thecountries examined in the matrix above (3 of the 9). This is particularly disheartening as this isperhaps the most crucial aspect in the effort to get a new generation of architects involved in theglobal struggle to address the needs and challenges of the ‘bottom billion’. Architecturaleducation gives its graduates a unique and useful skill set which will allow them to be leadingcontributors to this effort. However, in order to take full advantage of this tremendous potential, aculture of civic engagement and public service must be created within the academic institutions andthe profession to educate, inspire and empower new generations of leaders.5. Limitations  It is important to note that this is an examination of the accreditation criteria of only those 310 Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine
  • 17. countries for which English-language documentation is readily available. Ideally, it would beexpanded to create a more comprehensive picture of the state of social responsibility training inarchitectural education. It is also important to acknowledge that this is an examination of official accreditation criteriaonly, and not of the actual content of courses currently being offered within the accreditedprograms. Individual architecture schools and academic staff may emphasise or de-emphasiseaspects of the accreditation criteria within their individual programs, and lack of inclusion of acertain aspect in official accreditation criteria does not necessarily imply that it is not beingincluded as part of the curriculum. However, including these issues as a required part of thestandard architecture programme is an important step to formalise the importance of socialresponsibility within the profession of architecture and to train an active, engaged, well-informedand socially responsible new generation of architects.6. Future Directions – International Collaboration  There is another, concurrent trend which will also have a significant effect on the pace andeffectiveness of these changes in architectural education. International collaboration inarchitecture has been increasing (NAAB, 2008), and accreditation authorities have beenresponding by creating a number of international agreements, accords and organizations intendedto promote the international mobility of architects and other design professionals.6.1 Bilateral and multilateral mutual recognition agreements  As explained above, the accreditation organizations of some countries such as Singapore andHong Kong have established the equivalency of other national architectural educationaccreditation standards to their own in order to ease international mobility for architecture studentsand professionals. Other countries have also recognized the value of the inverse approach.Korea’s accrediting board (KAAB) has noted that ‘it is also the interest of the KAAB for KAABaccredited degrees to hold comparable accrediting or validating status for accrediting / validatingagencies abroad which promote corresponding values’, and South Africa’s SACAP notes that “forcredibility in the international sphere within which architects from the Republic of South Africaoperate,’ broad conformity should be sought with RIBA and CAA criteria. (KAAB, 2005; SACAP,2007)*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 311Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf
  • 18. Many countries have also gone beyond this unilateral approach to join bilateral or multilateralmutual recognition arrangements, which establish equivalency between national accreditationcriteria for the purpose of professional registration. For example, in 2010 the Hong Kong Instituteof Architects (HKIA) and the Architects Accreditation Council of Australia (AACA) signed anagreement establishing the mutual recognition of their accreditation systems of architecturalprograms. (HKIA, 2011) Many of the countries discussed in this study are also signatories of themultilateral Canberra Accord, which establishes recognition of substantial equivalency betweenaccreditation systems in the architectural education of its signatories. (Canberra Accord, 2008) Such arrangements will likely become even more widespread as international collaboration inarchitecture increases. As this process continues, it will be important to ensure that theseagreements serve to maintain or raise the requirements for training in social responsibility, ratherthan reducing them to the lowest common denominator.6.2 Commonwealth Association of Arhitects (CAA)  Since 1968, the CAA has published a List of academic architectural programmes that itconsidered to be of a sufficient standard to recommend recognition by national authorities. TheList was intended to provide a means of recognition of courses in countries which did not have theirown accreditation system. However, the CAA has identified a growing need for mutual recognitionof qualifications between countries both within and outside the Commonwealth. The futureformal purpose of the List is, therefore, twofold: a) to continue to provide the means ofrecommending recognition of a course to a national authority in a country which does not have itsown validation procedure, and b) to provide a list of qualifications which can be recommended forrecognition by all the constituent national authorities. (CAA, 2007) The CAA procedures and criteria are adapted from and compatible with the aims andobjectives of architectural education set out in the Charter for Architectural Education created bythe United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and theInternational Union of Architects (UIA). (CAA, 2007) (For more information about theUNESCO/UIA Charter, see ‘UNESCO/UIA’ below.) 312 Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine
  • 19. Table 11: UNESCO/UIA: Social Responsibility Education Requirements for Accreditation (UNESCO/UIA, 2005). General Text of General Considerations Considerations That the educators must prepare architects to formulate new solutions for the present and the future as the new era will bring with it grave and complex challenges with respect to social and functional degradation of many human settlements. These #0 challenges may include global urbanisation and the consequent depletion of existing environments, a severe shortage of housing, urban services and social infrastructure, and the increasing exclusion of architects from built environment projects. That it is in the public interest to ensure that architects are able to understand regional characteristics and to give practical expression to the needs, expectations #2 and improvement to the quality of life of individuals, social groups, communities and human settlements That the vision of the future world, cultivated in architecture schools, should include the following goals : a decent quality of life for all the inhabitants of human settlements; a technological application which respects the social, cultural and aesthetic needs of people and is aware of the appropriate use of materials in #7 architecture and their initial and future maintenance costs; an ecologically balanced and sustainable development of the built and natural environment including the rational utilisation of available resources; an architecture which is valued as the property and responsibility of everyone Objectives of Text of Objectives of Architectural Education Arch. Education That the following special points be considered in the development of the curriculum: Awareness of responsibilities toward human, social, cultural, urban, architectural, and environmental values, as well as architectural heritage; Adequate knowledge of the means of achieving ecologically sustainable design and environmental conservation and rehabilitation; Development of a creative #4 competence in building techniques, founded on a comprehensive understanding of the disciplines and construction methods related to architecture; Adequate knowledge of project financing, project management, cost control and methods of project delivery; Training in research techniques as an inherent part of architectural learning, for both students and teachers Social Studies: Ability to act with knowledge of society, and to work with clients # 5.B2 and users that represent society’s needs Environmental Studies: Ability to act with knowledge of natural systems and built environments; Understanding of conservation and waste management issues; Understanding of the life cycle of materials, issues of ecological sustainability, environmental impact, design for reduced use of energy, as well as passive systems # 5.B3 and their management; Awareness of the history and practice of landscape architecture, urban design, as well as territorial and national planning and their relationship to local and global demography and resources; Awareness of the management of natural systems taking into account natural disaster risks*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 313Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf
  • 20. 6.3 UNESCO/UIA  The UNESCO/UIA Charter for Architectural Education is the international benchmark forarchitectural education accreditation, referenced in most international accreditation agreementsand accords, as well as some national accreditation criteria. As the standard for architecturaleducation within the international community the Charter is an important medium for advocatingsocial responsibility in architectural education around the world. The 2005 UNESCO/UIA Charter for Architectural Education opens with some stirringlanguage on the subject of social responsibility in architecture: ‘There is no doubt that the architects capacity to solve problems, can greatly contribute to tasks such as community development, self-help programmes, educational facilities, etc., and thus make a significant contribution to the improvement of the quality of life of those who are not accepted as citizens in their full right and who cannot be counted among the architects usual clients...Beyond all aesthetic, technical and financial aspects of the professional responsibilities, the major concerns, expressed by the Charter, are the social commitment of the profession, i.e. the awareness of the role and responsibility of the architect in his or her respective society, as well as the improvement of the quality of life through sustainable human settlements’. (UNESCO/UIA, 2005) The Charter also sets forth a number of ‘General Considerations’ and ‘Objectives ofArchitectural Education’ which take a similarly strong stance on the role of social responsibility inthe architectural profession. Table 11 lists those most relevant to this discussion of socialresponsibility in architectural education. The UNESCO/UIA Charter sets forth an inspiring vision of the role of architectural educationand the architectural profession in addressing society’s challenges and needs. It provides asuitably ambitious set of criteria to serve as a benchmark for national and international architecturaleducation accreditation criteria, and will hopefully serve to guide the profession toward a future inwhich all architectural education programmes produce graduates who are inspired and empoweredto take an active and effective role in helping society to meet the challenges ahead. 314 Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine
  • 21. 7. References Architects Accreditation Council of Australia (AACA) and The Royal Australian Institute of Architects (RAIA). (2006). Australian Architecture Program Accreditation and Recognition Procedure (DOC APARP 01). http://www.architecture.com.au/i-cms_file?page=649/APARP01_AACARAIA_FINAL_J ANUARY_2006.pdf.Belgaumi, Arif. (2008). Architectural Education in Pakistan – Road to Excellence. http://adapk.com/architectural-education-in-pakistan/index.html.Board of Architects Singapore (BOA). (2010). Educational Qualification. http://www.boa.gov.sg/education.html.Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB). (2005). 2005 CACB Conditions and Procedures for Accreditation. http://www.cacb-ccca.ca/documents/2005_CACB_Conditions_and_Procedures_for_Accr editation.pdf.Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB). (2011). Accreditation. http://www.cacb-ccca.ca/index.cfm?M=1357&Repertoire_No=660386109&Voir=menu.Canberra Accord on Architectural Education. (2008). Recognition of Substantial Equivalency Between Accreditation/Validation Systems in Architectural Education. http://www.canberraaccord.org/Public_Documents/streamfile.aspx?name=Approved_and _signed_Canberra_Accord.pdf.Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK). (2010). MArch Study Scheme. CUHK School of Architecture. http://www.arch.cuhk.edu.hk/programme/MAProgramInformation.pdf.Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK). (2011). MArch Design Studios Overview. CUHK School of Architecture. http://www.arch.cuhk.edu.hk/index-MArchstudio.html.Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA). (2007). Qualifications in Architecture Recommended for Recognition by CAA: Procedures and Criteria. Stamford, UK: Commonwealth Association of Architects. http://www.comarchitect.org/pdfs/VALGreenBkProcedures.pdf.Council of Architecture (COA). (2002). Minimum Standards of Architectural Education Regulations, 1983. New Delhi: Council of Architecture. http://www.coa.gov.in/acts/regulation1983.htm.Council of Architecture (COA). (2008). Minimum Standards of Architectural Education, 2008. New Delhi: Council of Architecture. http://www.coa.gov.in/Rev.%20Min.%20Std.pdf.Goldberger, Paul. (2002). ‘Does Architecture Matter? Thoughts on Social Responsibility,*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 315Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf
  • 22. Buildings, and the World After September 11th. Speech delivered at Baltimore AIA, Baltimore, MD on October 8, 2002. http://www.paulgoldberger.com/lectures/14.Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA). (2011). HKIA Circular 16/2011. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Architects. http://www.hkia.net/UserFiles/Image/EDAC/MR_Accreditation_Systems_Arch_Program mes_AACA.pdf.Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA). (No date available [n.d.]). HKIA Accredited/Recognised School Lists. www.hkia.net/en/doc/PA/School_Lists.doc.International Union of Architects (UIA). (2008). UIA and Architectural Education Reflections and Recommendations. Paris: International Union of Architects. http://www.aij.or.jp/jpn/aijedu/reflex_eng.pdf.Korea Architectural Accrediting Board (KAAB). (2005). Conditions & Procedures For Professional Degree Programs in Architecture. Seoul: Korea Architectural Accrediting Board. http://www.kaab.or.kr/download/KAAB-2005%20Conditions.pdf.Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM). (2005). Policy and Procedure for Accreditation of Architectural Programmes. http://www.lam.gov.my/accreditation.html.Lembaga Arkitek Malaysia (LAM). (2005). Policy and Procedure for Accreditation of Architectural Programmes: Appendix A. http://www.lam.gov.my/accreditation3.html.McRae, Beverley (Chief Executive of the New Zealand Institute of Architects). (2011). Personal communication, 13 June 2011.National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). (2004). NAAB Conditions for Accreditation. Washington, DC: The National Architectural Accrediting Board. http://www.naab.org/accreditation/2004_Conditions.aspx.National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). (2008). Report of the International/Global Task Group. http://www.naab.org/documents/streamfile.aspx?name=20080321_International%20Glob al%20Trends%20Report.pdf&path=Public+Documents%5cAccreditation%5c%5cWinter %202008%20Task%20Group%20Reports.National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). (2009). 2009 Conditions for Accreditation. Washington, DC: The National Architectural Accrediting Board. http://www.naab.org/accreditation/2009_Conditions.aspx.National University of Singapore (NUS). (2008). BA (Architecture) Course Information for 2008/9 Cohort Onwards. NUS Department of Architecture. http://www.arch.nus.edu.sg/programme/architecture/ba-arch/aki_handbk_0809.pdf.National University of Singapore (NUS). (No date available [n.d.]). Master of Architecture – Programme Information. NUS Department of Architecture. 316 Boonsap Witchayangkoon, and Paulo C.L. Segantine
  • 23. http://www.arch.nus.edu.sg/programme/architecture/m-arch/master_aki_info.html.Pakistan Council of Architects & Town Planners (PCATP). (2008). Accreditation Guide. Karachi: Pakistan Council of Architects & Town Planners. http://www.pcatp.org.pk.Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA). (2003). Criteria for Validation. London: Royal Institute of British Architects. http://www.architecture.com/Files/RIBATrust/Education/2007/Validation/CriteriaForVali dation.pdf.Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA). (2010). RIBA Validation Criteria at part 1 and part 2. London: Royal Institute of British Architects. http://www.architecture.com/Files/RIBAProfessionalServices/Education/Validation/RIB AValidationCriteriafromSeptember2011Parts1,23.pdf.South African Council for the Architectural Profession (SACAP). (2007). Guidelines for the Validation of Courses in Architecture. Johannesburg: South African Council for the Architectural Profession. http://www.sacapsa.com/sacap/action/media/downloadFile?media_fileid=100.UNESCO/UIA Validation Committee for Architectural Education, in collaboration with the UIA Education Commission. (2005). UNESCO/UIA Charter for Architectural Education. Paris: International Union of Architects. http://www.aij.or.jp/jpn/aijedu/chart_ang.pdf.University of Hong Kong (UHK). (2011). Master of Architecture. UHK Faculty of Architecture. http://fac.arch.hku.hk/index.asp. Kimberly Kramer is a Foreign Lecturer at Chiang Mai University, Thailand. She holds a BA in Architecture and International Relations from Wellesley College, an M.Phil in Environmental Design from Cambridge University, and an M.Arch from the University of Maryland. Her research focuses on vernacular architecture and social responsibility in architecture.Peer Review: This article has been internationally peer-reviewed and accepted for publication according to the guidelines given at the journal’s website. Note: This article was accepted and presented at the 2nd International Conference-Workshop on Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design (ICWSAUD) organized by School of Housing, Building & Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia from March 3rd -5th, 2012.*Corresponding author (K.Kramer). Tel: +66-5394-2806. Fax: +66-5322-1448. E-mailaddress: kimberly.kramer@gmail.com. 2012. American Transactions on Engineering& Applied Sciences. Volume 1 No.3. ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online 317Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V01/295-317.pdf