constructed following the contours of the Weald and Downland Gridshell building. The glazing was constructed from flexible polycarbonate to allow it to deform slightly to follow the double curvature of the building to create a clerestory. The cladding was cut from locally sourced Western Red Cedar weather boarding sourced nearby. The Weald and Downland Gridshell building became an iconic building and went on to win a whole raft of awards including achieving the Stirling Prize shortlist. It is an example of the importance of partnering for complex structures where the early input of the carpenter is essential to the success of the project
Translating to the area of school design – adds the theoretical dimension of education to that of lifestyle.
Andrea w iowa_interview9slideshare
Sustainable School Design:participation and post-occupancyevaluation...including my past work experience, skills and aspirations for research and whyam suited to teach here...School of ArchitectureIOWA State UniversityAndrea WheelerBA(Hons) Dip Arch (Oxford)MPhil (Mech. Eng.) PhD (Architecture)11 March 2013
OutlineAbout MeTeachingResearchAdministration and Teaching Innovation
PRIZE WINNINGSTUDENTBA (Hons) Architecture, Second year prize for outstanding achievementNational Diploma in Art and Design. Fine Art/ Studio Practice(Distinction)Graduate Diploma in Architecture – Prizes for Graphics and DissertationMPhil Mechanical Engineering (Timber Repair) TRADA TechnologyScholarshipPhD Architecture (Arts and Humanities Research Council Scholarship)
Ethics in the built environment. Wheeler, Andrea (2008) "About being-two in an architectural perspective". In Conversations, Luce Irigaray (ed.) Continuum. pp. 53 – 72 Wheeler, Andrea (2008) "Architectural Issues in Building Community through Luce Irigarays Perspective on being- two". In, Teaching Luce Irigaray (ed.) Continuum. pp. 61- 68
Post Doctoral Research –Success in Research Funding1.Post doctoral UK Energy Research Council/ESRC , 3 yearInterdisciplinary Early Careers Fellowship , The University ofNottingham (£220,000 over 3 years)2.Universitas 21 (consortium of international Universities) lecture series3.UK Energy Research Council “The Meeting Place” Oxford,dissemination body for the UK Energy Research Council.
Research QuestionHow do you explore a different relation, a non-exploitative, non-appropriative relation to the world and toothers? How does this translate into a design for a school– what does it look like?
Commercial ExperienceArchitects, Engineers, Planning Consultants and PolicyDefra (Department of EnvironmentFood and Rural Affairs) ,London (Policy)Walker Troup, ArchitectsShere Consulting Ltd., (Planning)Redmak Architects, NottinghamDerek Latham Architects, DerbyRegeneration East Midlands (Planning)March and Grochowski, Nottingham (Architects)Design Group Cambridge (Architects)Holder and Mathias Alcock, Architects, Cardiff
So, why IOWA StateUniversity?Strong architectural designStrong student communityInterdisciplinary designHistory of community engagement
What I am bringing toIOWA School ofArchitecture…• Experience in teaching at Masters level.• Teaching innovation – social media• Publications• Success in research funding• Interest in interdisciplinary research• Skilled administrator/ education researcher (technologies) at the Centre for Engineering and Design Education (research, teaching development, software development)
Teaching interests• Degree Programme – Building Science and Technology – Human Behaviour and Environmental Theory• Master of Science (graduate level research) – Sustainable Design – Design Inquiry – Architectural and Construction History – Building Science and Construction
Robin Nicholson, Partner, Edward Cullinan Architect “Do we need visions for alow energy future?” (SLIDESHARE)
What do we need for a low carbon future?Lecture summary• 1. Conserving energy over building conservation regulations• 2. Better knowledge of building physics amongst construction professionals• 3. Better building skills amongst the green building sector.• 4. Controls that real people can understand.• 5. Financial incentives.• 6. People being on board.• 7. How we behave.• 8. Collective energy initiatives – community owned renewable energy.• 9. Cradle to cradle economies.• 10. Measurement and the publication of energy data.•
Centre of Expertise on Influencing Behaviours, (Centre forSustainable Behaviours) Defra March 2010 – August 2010
different ways of being emergenttechnologies But which is the most significant? 29
Innovative technology is not enough:Engagement, behaviour and “rebound” effectsTechnology will not be sufficient to transform housing to reduce its impact on theenvironment as it will not challenge the way in which this impact is created (Seyfang 2012,Reid and Houston 2013).Research has demonstrated that occupants of low carbon homes have found methods tobypass low carbon solutions in order to prevent the curtailment of their activities (Gill et al.2010)
Architecture and the Avant-Guard“Environmentalism was born from the avant-garde cultural movement in America and isnow in the hands of environmental technologists. I think it’s a problem thatenvironmentalists believe the happiness of man depends on the square metres of grassavailable to them, and that our habitat should be based solely around energyconsumption.”“Post environmentalism will come of age when environmentalists re-establish contact withthe avant-garde, with innovation, experimentation and aesthetic concerns. Only then will itbecome an important historical movement”Peruccio, Pier Paolo and Elena Formia (2013) “The designer as revolutionary” [Interview with Andrea Branzi] In Special Report:Design. The Art Newspaper Section 2 Number 243, February 2013, p. 16).
Participation in School Design:Building Schools for the Futureprogramme 2005 - 2010How to develop schools that are ‘sustainable’ through the relationship ofthe building design and the behaviour of the children (Blair, A, 2004).(Context at that time)Critical position on the role of children’s participation in the design ofschools was proposed as key element of the Building Schools for theFuture programme.
PublicationWheeler, Andrea (2010) “An interview with Harry Shier: Contrastingchildren’s participation in the UK Building Schools for the Futureprogramme with the Nicaraguan context” International Journal ofChildren’s Rights Vol. 18/3, 457-474 (translated into Spanish forNicaraguan readers available at:http://www.harryshier.110mb.com/docs/Wheeler_Entrevista_a_Harry_Shier.pdf ).
Conclusions•Children and young people have to have the right within our existingeducational systems to be able to encounter all the complexities this involves.•Sustainability requires a critical engagement with questions of living and being.•Who is this historical human being characterised by his/her exploitation of thenatural environment? How do we understand his or her rights?•sustainable lifestyle relates directly to the traditions of philosophical andpolitical discourse and this cannot be absent from teaching in schools in thecontext of sustainable development.
THE OTHER SIDE OF THE DESIGNPROCESS - POST OCCUPANCYResearch question 2010 - 2011There is a mismatch between predicted and actual energyuse in building. How do we understand this? Schoolbuildings were our case studies.
The problem of method and of evaluation– questions about post-occupancy(theories we wanted to test)Users of the building have an impact on energy demand andperformance data.School “culture” influences energy behaviours.Post-occupancy evaluation is an educational opportunity and provides aplatform to motivate change.
Adapted a method: Including children inpost-occupancy requires appropriatemethodsOpen discussionWalk-throughs with videoQuizzesDrawingsBig group design maps and conversation
“We like to sit underthe stairs where thereis carpet and aradiator, but we’re notallowed. We just liketo sit there because itis inside. We just likehaving a quieter areayou can sit and just bewith your friends [...]They should have littlebenches [outside]people can sit on anda shelter in the winter.I know it is cold but Ido like to go outside toget some fresh air.And also the ladswhen they playfootball would havesomewhere for theirbags” (Year 10 pupil).
School culture and user behavioursThere’s a lot of difficulties working with them [the construction company] ...If there is aproblem with the school, it’s the schools fault. [...] If there’s a problem they will blame theschool... it ends up just being a frustration. [...] And then obviously on the purchasing side,whenever anything needs to be changed, if we need a new gat e or pathway, whatever itis, we have to go through them and the costs are so significantly high” (Building Manager)“On our first day they sat us down and told us what we couldn’t do in the school – from thestart it made us feel it wasn’t ours .
Children and Energy“I think we should stop lighting the school in the day as the sun lights it up a lot and we’rewasting electricity” (Final ‘design’ session, Year 8 pupil).“Are the lights movement sensitive? I don’t think in the corridors they are. They could bemovement sensitive, but even just a switch”Sometimes they [the classrooms] are really warm and the windows don’t open. None ofthe windows open. Only the lower ones. In the summer it’s really hot” (Year 7 pupil.)Researcher 1: “Are there things you think the architect could have done better?” “Just thewindows.”
“But you can’t open them and you get too hot... But then you have air conditioning. Butyou only have it in ICT but when you do it’s nice and cool and then it gets too cold[different voice]. In normal classrooms you have this thing that brings air in form outside,but if it’s hot outside it’s just bringing in hot air.”“I dont even think we are trying. It feels like they dont even think they care. Butthey are always banging on about it. They are always telling us to save energy butwhy not them”.
RESULTS1.Contradictions between what adults say and what they tell children to do. A mismatchbetween designers intention and teachers ability to manage the behaviours of pupils –(many examples – dining biggest issue)2.Poorly functioning building features (windows, heating and ventilation systems,circulation, dining spaces) and either over provision or under provision of space andfacilities, together with teachers prohibiting use of facilities (toilets locked, .3.Lack of ownership of PFI buildings4.Lack of understanding of the ‘sustainable’ design features of the new school building –solar heating panels5.Convoluted facilities management procedures where prohibitions did nothing towardschildren establishing their own “authentic” relationship to the environment and a deep orlasting critical perspective on the problems of sustainable development.
MOTIVATING CHANGEThe School plans to enter into discussion with the local authority togain responsibility for paying their own bills and putting measures inplace to save 20%.Schools setting up children “Eco-groups”.
ADMINISTRATION ANDTEACHING DEVELOPMENTAnd what else do I bring?
School Design Futures Conference UKERC funded “The Meeting Place” University of Oxford, St Hugh’s College
MEGS-KT: Teaching development and Business and Community Engagement (towards low carbon economies): MEGS-KT: How to develop a relevant, up-to-date desirable platform for “CFD” opportunities, opening up University resources and allowing SMEs in the renewable energy sector to share their knowledge.SASIE, Micro-Business,Nottingham, UK
Building a Community of Practice,“catalytic Individuals” and the small business community.17/10/2012 Robin Nicholson, Edward Cullinan Architects24/10/2012 Russell Smith, Parity Projects14/11/2012 Terry McGivern, The Institute for Sustainability and theFlash Programme05/12/2012 John Davis, Domestic Green Deal Assessor16/01/2012 Carl Benfield, Prescient Power30/01/2012 Keyur Vadodaria, Researcher, CALEBRE project20/02/2012 Rich Cartwright, RDC Energy , Jonathan Gilbert, TheRapid technology Transfer Group, and Tracy Thomas
We built a an online communityCommunity (50 participants over 7 workshops (9 speakers))Catalytic Individuals /Fellows: Robin Nicholson (Award WinningArchitect, ex- Vice President RIBA), Parity Projects (Award Winning SME),Institute for Sustainability (Training Centre), John Davis (Green DealAssessor), Saucy Horse (Social Networking Business Champion). CarlBenfield (Prescient Energy [Solar and Wind]), Keyur Vadodaria(Researcher/ Architect), Richard Cartright (Engineer, RDC Energy Ltd,[Heat Pumps]) Jonathan Gilbert (Rapid Technology Transfer Group[Innovative Technologies]) Tracy Thomas (Saucy Horse, Social MediaMarketing)PhD students/Researchers (Loughborough University, NottinghamUniversity) Enrique Centelles, Kate Simpson, Sergey Fomin, Paula Cosar,Becky Gough, Philip Leicester, Sven HallinAcademics: Professor Jacqui Glass, Dr Paul Rowley, Dr Steven Firth,Zulfikar Adamu
Catalytic Individuals and Our Social Media Fellow Tracy Thomas
LinkedIn Community (50+additional members in the East Midlands)
Why is this important as a BCEproject for the University?Small businesses represent a supply chain that will allow us to designand build low cost low energy and sustainable buildings.
The Community Views• http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Xx602KnOiFM (3 mins)
“Correspondents” and the purpose of evaluation• http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=35IDWaB_X98 (1 min)
What emerges as a result ofparticipation?A community trying to work together?
The E-MENTORING Pilot : “ImprovingStudent Employability Through E-Mentoring”.(February 2012 – June 2012)• Awarded HEA Departmental Grant• Recruited mentors and mentees. Mentors were young, 2- 7 years post qualification. Mentees from the School of Civil and Building Engineering (without placement experience).• Invited to a launch meeting to meet mentors/mentees and have some training (all online).• Left to get on with it. Some emails. Some invitations to feedback via online questionnaires.• June – August interviews.• September, review of programme and revision ahead of pilot 2.
Anticipating a changing working world and howtechnology is reshaping work, education and societyExtreme longevityGlobally connected media and communication toolsRoboticsGreater computational powerThe role of social media to create new forms of production
Example experience of e- mentoring• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=McS_C_ausPY (3 min)
The benefits of e-mentoring andthe benefits of virtual mentoring/ collaboration in the studio?• Unique relationship (from our project)• Benefits beyond simply employability (from our project)• Expanding horizons and work practices (from our project)
New ICT Enhanced Approaches toTeaching and LearningVirtual mentoring with practitioners (architects) or Internationalacademics using Skype, Google meeting.Virtual Mentoring/ Collaboration (design studio courses): with otherschools of architecture (in term projects) with other disciplines(interdisciplinary studio) Peers (international) twitter
CONCLUSIONSo why am I here? What am I about? And why might youwant me to teach here?
RESEARCH AND TEACHINGDEVELOPMENT INTERESTS• Sustainable design, participation and post-occupancy as a learning opportunity for better design and as a means of motivating behavioural change amongst users• Interdisciplinary research between fine art and architecture/ participation• Pedagogic research and social enhanced teaching methods
RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONPLANSPublication/ book on sustainable schools and participation addressing fine arttheory. “Space to ponder”Grant funding for design for behaviour change/ motivating sustainable lifestyles- how innovative technologies and controls can support behavioural change.Grant funding for pedagogic research into social media and ICT enhancementoring in the studio.
HOW DO WE KNOW THEFUTURE? HOW CAN WEDESIGN FOR THE NEEDS OFFUTURE OTHERS?If the world is going to be different in 50 years, how can wedecide what is meant by sustainable design? Sustainabledesign comments on the now. For architects it is a questionof ethics, we can act in good faith.