UNIT OBJECTIVES• Definition of substance abuse• Scope of substance abuse in Malawi among young people• Myths and conceptions on substance abuse• Most commonly abused substances in Malawi• Consequences of substance abuse among young people• Prevention of substance abuse
Definition of Drug and substance abuse1. Drug-substance used as medicine. Substance that stimulates the nervous system especially one that is addictive2. Abuse-a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to problems in psychosocial, biologic, cognitive/perceptual or spiritual/belief dimensions of life. It is the excess use or wrong use of something.3. Substance abuse-it is also the use of chemical substance to alter or modify behaviour.
WHY YOUNG PEOPLE ABUSE DRUGS• Peer pressure• Easy to get• To seek peer approval• Rapid social changes• Stress and anxiety• To deaden pain• To help stay awake when studying• Emotionally deprived and lonely• Frustrations• Rejection by parents
Myths and Misconceptions on substance abuse Myth Fact1 Alcoholism is a Alcoholism is a disease that responds to treatment, which disease that is include eliminating all alcohol consumption and difficult to cure psychosocial counseling2 Alcohol and Alcohol and chamba are not the only abused drugs in chamba are the Malawi. Other drugs include tobacco, mandrax, glue, only drugs used by cocaine, heroin, petrol young people3 Alcohol is not a Alcohol is both a drug and an addictive substance. It drug, it is just an affects the mind and body. addictive substance4 Driving after using Like alcohol, chamba affects motor coordination, slows chamba is as reflexes, and affects perception (the way we see and dangerous as interpret events around us). All these changes increases driving after the likelihood of an accident while driving drinking alcohol
Myth Fact5 Drinking alcohol among young people Most young people are initiated into drug is hereditary and alcohol use by peers6 It is rare for a teenager to be alcohol Many youth abuse alcohol and many are addicted7 Cigarette smoking is fashionable and Cigarettes contain nicotine which addictive. not addictive Cigarette smoking is harmful for your health. It has been found that smoking is associated with lung cancer. It is especially more dangerous to pregnant women to smoke because it affects the lungs and breathing of the fetus as well as the development of the brain.8 Alcohol and drugs help young people Alcohol and drug make young people handle their problems better temporarily forget about their problem. Their problem do not however go away9 Substances like glue (inhalants) are Substances like glue and petrol can be basically harmless even though adults extremely dangerous. Unlike most drugs, make big deal about them inhalants can cause permanent damage to organs like liver or brain
10 Alcohol is sexual a stimulant Alcohol like cocaine and other drugs, can actually depress a persons sexual response. The drug can lessen inhibition with asexual partner but it causes problems such as inability to have erection, loss of sexual feeling or inability to have orgasm11 A cup of coffee and cold shower Drinking coffee and a cold shower will not sober a will sober a drunk person drunk person. One becomes sober with passage of time. It takes one hour for the liver to process one gram (1g)of pure alcohol.12 When people stop smoking If there is no permanent heart or lung damage, the cigarettes, they can not reverse body begins to heal itself when one stops smoking some of the damage to the body13 Cigarette smoking every now As soon as people start smoking they experience and the is not harmful i.e. once staining of teeth, bad breath, and a shortness of breath a week that may affect their physical performance. Addiction to nicotine is very quick. People who smoke for any period of time have got a greater risk of cancer and other lung disease, cancer of tongue and throat and heart diseases.
Myth Fact14 Chamba is not harmful, it Chamba has long term effects such as decrease helps adolescents and young in motivation, memory loss, damage in people to study, to remove coordination impaired judgment, damage to the shyness, to be reproductive system and throat and lung strong/powerful and irritation become intelligent.
Most Commonly Abused Substance Among Young PeopleDRUG AND EXPLANATORY NOTES EFFECTSSUBSTANCEAlcohol •Alcohol is a depressing •Euphoria (exaggerated feeling of well being) drug with the potential •Intoxication to destroy health if •Ataxia (staggering gait) taken in excess •Over consumption causes death, beats up in •Commonly abused homes, unplanned sexual encounters substance among •Causes inflammation of the liver (liver cirrhosis) adolescents and young •It drains more money from individual and people in Malawi family •Speech is slurred •The mind tend to be clouded i.e. ones ability to perform tasks is reduced. •Could lead to head trauma ( injury ) •Nutritional deficiency
DRUG AND EXPLANATORY NOTES EFFECTSSUBSTANCECigarettes •Mostly used by young people •If used over a long period of time it •Tobacco contains nicotine, a causes lung cancer and heart attacks drug that is more addictive. Nicotine is a tranquilizer and is found in cigaretteChamba •It is a dried plant material from a •Irritation of throat plant called cannabis sativa •Dryness of the mouth •It is known with different names •Blood shot eyes among young people in various •Increased appetite for food parts of the country. •Drowsiness •It is popularly known as: •Disruption of thought and speech •Marijuana •Addictions •Fodya wa mkulu •Untidiness •Malawi Gold •Knee jerk reflex •Ganja •Jah •Nanzi •Weed
DRUG AND SUBSTANCE EXPLANATORY NOTES EFFECTSSedatives (sleeping drugs) •Commonly referred to as •Ability to trigger suicidal sleeping tablets and that thoughts they are manufactured for •Increase in dosage would medical use result in overdependence •Meant to reduce tension and anxiety and induce sleep •Mostly sold at the black market
WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE?• Leads to casual sex and rape which will lead to contracting STI’s, HIV, and getting unplanned pregnancy.• Mental illness• Drop out of school• Loss of memory• Loss of motivation• Leads to poverty• Youth become less productive• Makes one live a world of fantancy
What are the workable strategies you have used/known in prevention of substance abuse among young people
Strategies in prevention of substance abuse• Engagement and role of young people• Engagement of guardians and parents• Information, education and communication• Life skills education• Community mobilization• Guidance and counseling• Policy advocacy, and strengthening of ban on young people in purchasing drugs i.e. chamba, alcohol, cigarettes.