Unit 2 meaning of adolescence and its implications for public health
MEANING OF ADOLESCENCEAND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH
WHAT I REMEMBER ABOUT MY ADOLESCENCEAims of the session• To share key experiences on adolescence• To discuss positive and negative experiences of adolescence• To compare experiences of adolescents today and those of 10 – 20 years ago
Write down one key experience of your own adolescence that remains alive in your memory
1. Are the experiences ofadolescents today different fromthose 10 – 20 years ago?2. Please give reasons to supportyour answer
THE NATURE AND SEQUENCE OFCHANGES AND EVENTSTAKING PLACE DURING ADOLESENCEAim of the session:• To help participants understand the nature and sequence of changes that occurs during adolescence.
DefinitionsAccording to the World Health Organisation (WHO)• Adolescence covers ages 10 to 19 years (It is the transitional period from childhood to adulthood)• Youth covers ages 15 to 24• Young people covers ages 10 to 24 yearsThe national youth policy defines young people as ages 10 to 24 years regardless of marital status.
Nature and sequence of changes and events during adolescenceEvents / changes Early Middle Latethat occur adolescence adolescence adolescence (10 – 13) (14 -16) (17 – 19)PhysicalPsychological:CognitiveEmotiveSocial
NEEDS OF YOUNG PEOPLEAim of the session• To discuss the needs of young people and how those needs could be met
The needs of young people should be considered in terms of• Offering opportunities• Enhancing capabilities• Offering second chances
P o lic ie s a f f e c t in g h u m a nc a p it a l f o r m a t io n d u r in gy o u t h t r a n s it io n s L o w li te In e x p e k n o w le ra c y a n d riE c o n o m y w id e p o lic ie s a n d dg d as de ence C o n seq s k ills d e o f b a s ic cin s t it u t io n s : m a c r o s t a b ilit y , es p r im a r p ite h ig h e r m a k e rs is io n uences y co S till fo of pooin v e s t m e n t c lim a t e , In s u ffi m p le tio n rm o u tc o m rg o v e r n a n c e , la b o u r m a r k e t c ie n to s e c o t a c c e s s id e n tity in g lo n g e r e s Y o u thr e g u la t io n s nd te rtia r y a ry a n d p re fere an d l th a n f o a s tin g f r ie n d ly n E d u c a t io n educat F e w jo io n la c k o f c e s ra R e m e d d u lts p o lic ie s o p p o rt b re so u r ia ti T r a in in g u ce c o s tly o n H e a lt h s e r v ic e s N o p la n itie s tf M yopi s fo r c iv ic e o rm f o r a W e lf a r e a n d f a m ily ngagem ris k ta k a n d a d u lts t en in g s e r v ic e s I n f ra s tr u c tu r e O p p o r t u n it ie s C a p a b ilit ie s S econd chances
• What are the health concerns of young people?• What do they think and feel about issues concerning their health?• How do they communicate this to adults
• What do the adolescent participants think and feel about these perspectives?• What do the adult Participants think and feel about
COMMON HEALTH PROBLEMS THAT AFFECT YOUNG PEOPLE.Aim of the session• To familiarize the service providers with the health problems affecting young people.
Group work• What are the health problems affecting young people in your district or community?• Is the health problem or problem behaviour a priority for you district or community?• Who considers it a priority and why?
Classification of diseases and health related behaviours of young people in developingcountriesDiseases which are Diseases and unhealthy Diseases which Diseases and unhealthy •Diseases:particular to young behaviours which manifest themselves behaviours of youngpeople affect young people primarily in young people whose major disproportionately people but originate in implications are on the childhood young persons future healthDiseases: Diseases: Diseases: Diseases: Diseases:Disorders of secondary Maternal morbidity Rheumatic heart STIs (including HIV) Malnutritionsexual development and mortality disease Dental disease MalariaDifficulties with STIs (including HIV) Gastroenteritispsychosocial Tuberculosis Acute respiratorydevelopment Schistosomiasis infections Behaviours:Suboptimal adolescent Intestinal helminthes Tobacco usegrowth spurt Mental disorders Alcohol and drug use Poor diet Behaviours: Lack of exercise Alcohol use Unsafe sexual practices Other substance abuse InjuriesNB Young people will contribute a substantial number of cases because they form a large proportion of the population in mostdeveloping countries.
Priority health problems affecting young people• Intentional and unintentional injuries• Sexual and reproductive health problems, including HIV/AIDS• Substance use and abuse (tobacco, alcohol and other substances• Mental health problems• Nutritional problems• Endemic and chronic diseases
WHY INVEST IN YOUNG PEOPLE’S HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAim of the session• To present important reasons for investing in young people’s health and development
Is it essential that national and localhealth leaders, planners and managers pay particular attention to young people’s health?
Three main reasons for investing in adolescent health• Health benefits for the individual adolescent – in terms of his or her current and future health, and in terms of the intergenerational effects• Economic benefits: improved productivity, return on investments, avert future health costs• As a human right: adolescents (like other age groups) have a right to achieve the highest attainable health
Guiding concepts for planning for adolescent health and development• Adolescence is a time of risk and opportunity• Not all adolescents are equally vulnerable• Adolescent development underlies prevention of health problems• Problems have common roots and are interrelated• The social environment influences adolescent behavior• Gender considerations are fundamental