• Like

Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

9.5 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Gamification

  • 4,989 views
Uploaded on

My talk at the 11/11/11 Interflex Conference "Games, Life, and Utopia" in Potsdam, Germany.

My talk at the 11/11/11 Interflex Conference "Games, Life, and Utopia" in Potsdam, Germany.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
4,989
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
188
Comments
2
Likes
23

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 9.5 Theseson the power and efficacyof gamificationSebastian Deterding (@dingstweets)Interflex »Games, Life, and Utopia« ConferenceNovember 11, 2011, Potsdamcb
  • 2. 1 Gamification is the cool new kid in town.
  • 3. Productivity
  • 4. Sustainability
  • 5. Activism
  • 6. Life
  • 7. In Business Bibles
  • 8. On Google Trends
  • 9. On the Gartner Hype Curve http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1763814
  • 10. Everywhere
  • 11. Points Badges Leaderboards IncentivesTracking, Feedback Goals, surprise Competition Rewards The blueprint (still)
  • 12. success storiessensors & analytics practices & discoursesThe Enablers
  • 13. 2 Gamification is nothing new.
  • 14. »Mowing the lawn or waiting in adentist’s office can become enjoyableprovided on restructures the activity byproviding goals, rules, and the otherelements of enjoyment to be reviewedbelow.« Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi flow: the psychology of optimal experience
  • 15. HCI Prehistoryman as machine man as computer man as meaning-makerErgonomics Cognitive sciences Human sciences Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness Persuasive Tech (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) (2006+) Hedonic attributes Game UX Ludic design CSCW (2002+) (2005+) Harrison, S., Tatar, D., and Sengers, P. The Three Paradigms of HCI. Proc. AltCHI 2007, ACM Press (2007).
  • 16. Precursors (1980-)
  • 17. Dennis Chao, Doom as an Interface forProcess Management (2001) Louis von Ahn, Games with a Purpose (2006) Repurposings (2001-)
  • 18. User Experience (2002-)
  • 19. Game UX (2002-)
  • 20. “Ludic Design” (2002-)
  • 21. Playfulness (2005-)
  • 22. CSCW (2005-)
  • 23. Persuasive Technology (2006-)
  • 24. Game Studies Prehistory Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness Persuasive Tech (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) (2006+) Hedonic attributes Game UX Ludic design CSCW (2002+) (2005+)
  • 25. Game Studies PrehistorySerious Digital Alternate Reality/ LudificationGames Serious Games Pervasive Games Serious Gaming of culture(1960+) (2001+) (2001+) (2006+) (2006+) Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness Persuasive Tech (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) (2006+) Hedonic attributes Game UX Ludic design CSCW (2002+) (2005+)
  • 26. Serious Games (1960-)
  • 27. Digital Serious Games (2001-)
  • 28. Serious Gaming (2006-)
  • 29. Alternate Reality Games (2001-)
  • 30. Pervasive Games (2001-)
  • 31. Ludification of Culture (2006-)
  • 32. 3 Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts.
  • 33. Gamification:The use ofgame design elementsin non-game contexts
  • 34. Gamification:The use ofgame design elementsin non-game contexts
  • 35. Gaming, not playing
  • 36. Gaming PlayingGaming, not playing
  • 37. Paidia Ludus play game improvisation skill, effort tumultuous ordered immoderate rule-boundRoger Cailloisman, play, and games (1958)
  • 38. Elements, not whole systems
  • 39. Systems ElementsElements, not whole systems
  • 40. Controllers, AI, 3DGame-based technology engines, ...Game-based practices Serious GamingGame-based design GamificationGame Design Elements
  • 41. Non-Game Contexts
  • 42. Gaming (serious) games gamification ElementsSystem (serious) toys playful design Playing
  • 43. 4 Gamification is not very playful.
  • 44. Paidia Ludus play game improvisation skill, effort tumultuous ordered immoderate rule-boundRoger Cailloisman, play, and games (1958)
  • 45. Trust and Safety Variety… vs. Quality and
  • 46. Surprise http://www.flickr.com/photos/titanas/1051688629/sizes/o/
  • 47. Expressive, generative toys
  • 48. BenignQuality and Variety… vs. Breaks of Social Rules
  • 49. Room for Mischief
  • 50. 5 Gamification is thinking inside the box.
  • 51. The Box
  • 52. GameThe BoxA designed artifact
  • 53. GameThe BoxA designed artifact
  • 54. Game The Box A designed artifact PlayingA frame of engagement
  • 55. debuggingplaytesting/reviewingpresenting gameplaymaking a machinimaa scientific studylearning (serious games)sports (e-sports)work (goldfarming)
  • 56. “I need to be very routinized;I mustn’t let myself drift.”“I hammer it through.”“Often, you have to force yourself to do it.”“You’re under real pressure.”“It’s extremely exhausting.”“It wears you out.”“My friends usually cannot comprehend howstressful this is.”
  • 57. “Sometimes, you have to play,you have to get further –and then, play is work.”
  • 58. QuestionWhen work can make thebest game tedious,why should games makework engaging?
  • 59. Sociotechnical systemsInformation ecologiesSituated actionEmbodied interactionSocial contextures...
  • 60. QuestionWhat about context?
  • 61. “Sometimes, you have to play,you have to get further –and then, play is work.”
  • 62. »First and foremost,all play is a voluntaryactivity.« Johan Huizinga homo ludens (1938)
  • 63. »First and foremost,all play is a voluntaryactivity.« a.k.a. “autonomy” Johan Huizinga homo ludens (1938)
  • 64. 6 Gamification is an inadvertent con.
  • 65. »Gamification is an inadvertent con. Ittricks people into believing that there’s asimple way to imbue their thing ... with thepsychological, emotional and social powerof a great game.« Margaret Robertson can’t play, won’t play (2009)
  • 66. si on fuCon #1
  • 67. Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points
  • 68. »Fun is just another word for learning.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  • 69. »Fun from games arises out of mastery. Itarises out of comprehension. It is the actof solving puzzles that makes games fun.With games, learning is the drug.« Raph Koster a theory of fun for game design (2005)
  • 70. Feedback without challenge
  • 71. Extrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210
  • 72. Intrinsic motivation http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967
  • 73. »An understanding of human motivationrequires a consideration of innatepsychological needs for competence,autonomy, and relatedness.« Edward Deci, Richard Ryan the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)
  • 74. Con(fusion) number 1The fun in playing gameschiefly arises fromintrinsic enjoyment, notextrinsic incentives.
  • 75. si on fuCon #2
  • 76. si on fuCon #2
  • 77. »Ninety percentof everything is crud.«Theodore Sturgeonsturgeon‘s revelation (1958)
  • 78. Con(fusion) number 2Games are not fun becausethey‘re games, but whenthey are well-designed.
  • 79. 7 Gamification is promising to designers.
  • 80. As a source of patterns
  • 81. As a source of lenses/heuristics
  • 82. Hard Fun Easy Fun Fiero Curiosity emotion < choice < mechanic > choice > emotion People Fun Serious Amusement Fun RelaxationAs a source of models
  • 83. As a source of methods
  • 84. As a field
  • 85. 8 Gamification is worth researching.
  • 86. ic opT #1 Motivational Design Marrying the psychology of motivation with the practice of design.
  • 87. ic opT #2 Rule Design Studies The holistic study and design of rule systems.
  • 88. Law Sociology Governance Social order Public Policy Institutionalization Interpretation Scripts (STS) Economics CSGame Theory AlgorithmsIncentives Modeling, abstraction,Business processes Game Studies automation, simulation Design Dynamics & Aesthetics Semiotics
  • 89. ic opT #3 Play Studies Understanding playing and gaming in their relation to games and toys.
  • 90. Player Studies
  • 91. Player Studies
  • 92. Are you “playing” or “using” it?
  • 93. (IMHO)
  • 94. 9 “Gamification” is a terrible word to use.
  • 95. ue ss 1I # »Unlike liars, bullshitters have no use for the truth. All that matters to them is hiding their ignorance or bringing about their own benefit. Gamification is bullshit.« Ian Bogost gamification is bullshit (2011) http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/4294/persuasive_games_shell_games.php
  • 96. »This is why gamification is such aneffective term. It keeps the term game andputs it right up in front, drawing attentionto the form’s mysterious power. But thekicker comes at the end: the -ify suffixmakes applying that medium to any givenpurpose seem facile and automatic.« Ian Bogost exploitationware (2010)
  • 97. ueIss 2 # What is a “game element”?* * Most game definitions have multiple necessary conditions
  • 98. Rules Avatars Quantitative feedback Goals Story gamification Notifications Comments AnalyticsRedeemable rewards Commitment
  • 99. Rules Avatars not game-specific Quantitative feedback Goals Story gamification Notifications Comments AnalyticsRedeemable rewards Commitment
  • 100. Rules Avatars not game-specific Quantitative feedback Goals Story gamification Notifications Comments not game-related AnalyticsRedeemable rewards Commitment
  • 101. Remember “Playfulness”?
  • 102. Gamefulness!
  • 103. Gaming (serious) games gamificationSystem/Artefact Elements (serious) toys playful design Playing
  • 104. Gaming (serious) games gamificationSystem/Artefact Quality/mode Elements (serious) toys playful design Playing
  • 105. Gaming (serious) games gamification Gameful DesignSystem/Artefact Quality/mode Elements (serious) toys playful design Playing
  • 106. 1 Gamification is the cool new kid in town.2 Gamification is nothing new.3 Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts.4 Gamification is not very playful.5 Gamification is thinking inside the box.6 Gamification is an inadvertent con.7 Gamification is promising to designers.8 Gamification is worth researching.9 »Gamification« is a terrible word to use.
  • 107. 9.5 Ceterum Censeo You should all read The Well-Played Game
  • 108. »It is through a community of peoplewho care more about fun than winningthat the Well-Played Game happens.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978/2002)
  • 109. »Inscribed in gold in our flagis the motto If you can’t play it,change it, and woven into ourbanner are the wordsIf it helps, cheat.« Bernie de Koven the well-played game (1978/2002)
  • 110. Thank You. @dingstweets sebastian@codingconduct.cc codingconduct.cc