In a vertical plane between the first and second bicuspid, sometimes below the second bicuspid, in rare cases below the first bicuspid, is located the mental foramen , through which the mental nerve and blood vessels emerge
Almost exactly in the center of the inner surface of the mandibular ramus the mandibular canal starts with a wide opening, the mandibular foramen . The mandibular canal which houses the inferior alveolar nerve and blood vessels begins at the mandibular foramen, curves downward and forward, and turns into a horizontal course below the roots of the molars.
The arteries of the oral cavity and the adjacent regions are, with a few exception, branches of the external carotid artery. Only parts of the nasal cavity and the upper parts of the face receive branches of the internal carotid artery.
The external and internal carotid arteries arise from the division of the common carotid artery.
The lingual artery arises from the external carotid artery approximately at the level of the greater horn of the hyoid bone. The numerous branches of the lingual artery supply the body and apex of the tongue.
Superficial Vein Pterygoid plexus Superior ophthalmic V Lateral nasal V Angular V Submental V Deep facial V Superior labial V Inferior labial V Anterior facial V Posterior Facial V Anterior branch Common Facial V Internal Jugular V Superfacial temporal V Internal maxillary V Posterior branch Posterior Auricular V External Jugular V
Deep Vein Cavernous sinus Superior ophthalmic V inferior ophthalmic V Venous plexus of foramen ovale Emissarium of lacerated foramen Angular V Anterior facial V Deep facial V Pterygoid plexus Internal maxillary V Posterior Facial V Internal nassal v Deep temporal v Maxillary branch Mandibular branch Pterygoid branch Middle meningeal v Common Facial V Internal Jugular V
The motor fibers supply the masticatory muscles, that is, masseter, temporal, external and internal pterygoid muscles; also the tensor palatine muscle, the mylohyoid muscle, and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle and, in the middle ear, the tensor tympani muscle.
The sensory fibers arise in the large semilunar ganglion and supply the skin of the entire face and the mucous membrane of the cranial viscera with the exception of the pharynx and the base of the tongue
The facial nerve proper contains the special somatic motor fibers which are destined for the muscles of facial expression, including the occipital and auricular muscles and the platysma, for the stapedius muscle, the posterior belly of the digastric, and the stylohyoid muscle.
Facial Nerve Proper At the stylomastoid foramen the main trunk of the facial nerve enters the substance of the parotid gland , the terminal branches emerge at the borders of the parotid gland. From above downward these branches are the temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular and cervical branches.
It is situated in the retromandibular fossa. The outer surface of the gland is situated quite superficially, covered only by its capsule, which is by far strongest on the lateral surface of the gland, the superficial facial, and the skin.
The external carotid artery, posterior facial vein, the facial nerve are, for some length of their course, embedded in the substance of the parotid gland.
round, biconvex body which occupies the inferior angle of the submaxillary triangle.
The duct turns to the superomedial or oral surface of mylohyoid muscle and then courses along the inner surface of the sublingual gland after crossing the lingual nerve superiorly. The duct opens at the sublingual caruncula either after uniting with the major sublingual duct or close to its opening.
The external maxillary artery is closely applied to the inner surface and the upper border of the maxillary gland, running in a groove of the gland. Sometimes even embedded in the glandular body itself. It sends branches into the gland and is thus tightly attached to it.
It is a long , flattened body situated close to the media surface of the mandible which , in this area, shows a slight depression, the sublingual fossa.
The greater part of the gland, forming the lateral and inferior portion of its substsnce, empties through the major sublingual duct, which either unites with the submaxillary duct or opens close to the latter at the sublingual caruncula.