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Infratemporal fossa


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Upload By : Ahmed Ali Abbas
Babylon University College of Dentistry
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Infratemporal fossa

  1. 1. Temporal And Infratemporal Fossa UploadUpload By : Ahmed Ali AbbasBy : Ahmed Ali Abbas Babylon University College of DentistryBabylon University College of Dentistry downloaddownload this file from Website onthis file from Website on GoogleGoogle choose Lectureschoose Lectures Then Second StageThen Second Stage Then choose the lecture you needThen choose the lecture you need
  2. 2. Infratemporal Fossa The infratemporal fossa is an irregularly shaped space deep and inferior to the zygomatic arch, deep to the ramus of the mandible, and posterior to the maxilla ). It communicates with the temporal fossa through the interval between (deep to) the zygomatic arch and (superficial to) the cranial bones.
  3. 3. Boundaries of the Infratemporal Fossa The boundaries of the infratemporal fossa are:  Laterally—ramus of the mandible  Medially—lateral pterygoid plate  Anteriorly—posterior aspect of the maxilla  Posteriorly—tympanic plate and the mastoid and styloid processes of the temporal bone  Superiorly—inferior (infratemporal) surface of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone  Inferiorly—where the medial pterygoid muscle attaches to the mandible near its angle.
  4. 4. Contents of the Infratemporal Fossa The infratemporal fossa contains the:  Inferior part of the temporal muscle  Lateral and medial pterygoid muscles  Maxillary artery  Pterygoid venous plexus  Mandibular, inferior alveolar, lingual, buccal, and chorda tympani nerves, and otic ganglion.
  5. 5. The temporal muscle  Is attached proximally to the temporal fossa and distally to the coronoid process and anterior border of the ramus of the mandible. The temporal muscle elevates the mandible (closes lower jaw); its posterior fibers retrude (retract) the protruded mandible.
  6. 6. Temporal  Floor of temporal fossa and deep surface.of temporal fascia  Tip and medial surface of coronoid process and anterior border of ramus of mandible  Deep temporal branches of mandibular nerve  Elevates mandible closing jaws; its posterior fibers retrude mandible after protrusion
  7. 7. Lateral pterygoid muscle It has two heads  Superior head: infratemporal surface and infratemporal crest of greater wing of sphenoid bone  Inferior head: lateral surface of lateral pterygoid plate  Insertion Neck of mandible (pterygoid fovea); articular disc and capsule of temporomandibular joint  Enervation Mandibular nerve via lateral pterygoid nerve from anterior trunk, which enters its deep surface  Acting together, they protrude mandible and depress chin; acting alone and alternately, they produce side-to-side movements of mandible
  8. 8. Medial pterygoid  Deep head: medial surface of lateral pterygoid plate and pyramidal process of palatine bone  Superficial head: tuberosity of maxilla.  Insertion Medial surface of ramus of mandible, inferior to mandibular foramen  Enervation Mandibular nerve via medial pterygoid nerve  Acting together, they help to elevate mandible, closing jaws; they help to protrude mandible; acting alone, they protrude side of jaw; acting alternately, they produce a grinding motion
  9. 9. Masseter muscle  Inferior border and medial surface of zygomatic arch  Lateral surface of ramus of mandible and its coronoid process  Enervation Mandibular nerve (CN V3) via masseteric nerve, which enters its deep surface  Action Elevates and protrudes mandible, thus closing jaws; deep fibers retrude it
  10. 10. The maxillary artery—the larger of the two branches of the external carotid artery  Arises posterior to the neck of the mandible  Passes anteriorly, deep to the neck of the mandil condyle (first or mandibular part)  Passes superficial or deep to the lateral pterygoid musle (second or pterygoid part)  Disappears through the pterygomaxillary fissure to sm the infratemporal fossa (third or pterygopalatine pan .
  11. 11. The maxillary artery is thus divided into three parts by lateral pterygoid muscle  The branches of the first or mandibular part of the artery are:  Deep auricular artery to the external acoustic meatus  Anterior tympanic artery to the tympanic membrane  Middle meningeal artery to the dura mater and calvaria  Accessory meningeal arteries to the cranial cavity  Inferior alveolar artery to the mandible, gingivae and teeth.
  12. 12. The branches of the second or pterygoid part of the maxillary artery are:  Deep temporal arteries, anterior and posterior, which supply the temporal muscle  Pterygoid arteries, which supply the pterygoid muscles  Masseteric artery, which supplies the deep surface of the masseter muscle  Buccal artery, which supplies the buccinator muscle.
  13. 13. The branches of the third or pterygopalatine part of the maxillary artery are:  Posterior superior alveolar (dental) artery, which supplies the maxillary molar and premolar teeth, the lining of the maxillary sinus, and the gingival  Infraorbital artery, which supplies the inferior eyelid, lacrimal sac, the side of the nose, and the superior lip  Descending palatine artery, which supplies the maxillary gingival, palatine glands, and the mucous membrane of the roof of the mouth  Artery of pterygoid canal, which supplies the superior part of the pharynx, the pharyngotympanic tube, and the tympanic cavity  Pharyngeal artery, which supplies the roof of the pharynx, the sphenoidal sinus, and the inferior part of the pharyn­gotympanic tube
  14. 14.  Sphenopalatine artery, the termination of the maxillary artery, which supplies the lateral nasal wall, the nasal sep­tum, and the adjacent paranasal sinuses.  The pterygoid venous plexus is partly between the temporal and pterygoid muscles. The plexus has connections with the facial vein through the cavernous sinus
  15. 15. The mandibular nerve  descends through the foramen ovale into the infratemporal fossa and divides into sensory and motor branches.  The branches of CN V3 are the auriculotemporal, inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves. Branches of the mandibular nerve also supply the four muscles of mastication but not the buccinator, which is supplied by facial nerve.
  16. 16. The otic ganglion  It is (parasympathetic) is in the infratemporal fossa, just inferior to the foramen ovale, medial to the mandibular nerve and posterior to the medial pterygoid muscle. Presynaptic parasympathetic fibers, derived mainly from the glossopharyngeal nerve, synapse in the otic ganglion Postsynaptic parasympathetic fibers, which are secretory to the parotid gland, pass from the otic ganglion to this gland through the auriculotemporal nerve.
  17. 17. The auriculotemporal nerve  encircles the middle meningeal artery and divides into numerous branches, the largest of which passes posteriorly, medial to the neck of the mandible, and supplies sensory fibers to the auricle and temporal region.  The auricotemporal nerve also sends articular fibers to the temporomandibularjoint and parasympathetic secretomotor fibers to the parotid gland.
  18. 18. The inferior alveolar nerve  The inferior alveolar nerve enters the mandibular foramen and passes through the mandibular canal forming the inferior dental plexus, which sends dental branches to all mandibular teeth on its side.  Another branch of the plexus—the mental nerve— passes through the mental foramen and supplies the skin and mucous membrane of the lower lip, the skin of the chin, and the vestibular gingival of the mandibular incisor teeth
  19. 19. The lingual nerve  lies anterior to the inferior alveolar nerve.  It is sensory to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the lingual gingivae.  It enters the mouth between the medial pterygoid and the ramus of the mandible and passes anteriorly under cover of the oral mucosa, just inferior to the 3rd molar tooth
  20. 20. The chorda tympani nerve  a branch of CN VII carrying taste fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, joins the lingual nerve in the infratemporal fossa.  The chorda tympani also carries secretomotor fibers for the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.
  21. 21. The temporal region  The temporal region includes the temporal and infratemporal fossae, superior and inferior to the zygomatic arch, respectively.
  22. 22. The temporal fossa  in which the temporal muscle (L. temporalis) is located, is bounded: 1. Posteriorly and superiorly by the temporal lines. 2. Anteriorly by the frontal and zygomatic bones. 3. Laterally by the zygomatic arch. 4. Inferiorly by the infratemporal crest.
  23. 23. The temporal fossa  The floor of the temporal fossa is formed by parts of the four bones that form the pterion: frontal, parietal, temporal, and greater wing of the sphenoid.
  24. 24. The temporal fossa  The fan-shaped temporal muscle arises from the bony floor and the overlying temporal fascia, which forms the roof of the temporal fossa.  This tough fascia covers the temporal muscle, attaching superiorly to the superior temporal line. Inferiorly, the fascia splits into two layers, which attach to the lateral and medial surfaces of the zygomatic arch. The temporal fascia also tethers the zygomatic arch superiorly.
  25. 25. The temporal fossa  When the powerful masseter muscle, which is attached to the inferior border of the arch, contracts and exerts a strong downward pull on the arch, the temporal fascia provides resistance.
  26. 26. The temporal fossa  The superficial temporal artery enters the temporal fossa, and ends in the scalp by dividing into frontal and parietal branches
  27. 27. The temporal fossa  is the region of the lateral aspect of the cranium superior to the zygomatic arch and inferior to the temporal lines
  28. 28. The temporal fossa  The superior border of this arch corresponds to the inferior limit of the cerebral hemisphere of the brain. The zygomatic arch is formed by the union of the temporal process of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.
  29. 29. The temporal fossa  Within the temporal fossa, the pterion is a craniometric point at the junction of the greater wing of the sphenoid, the squamous temporal bone, the frontal, and the parietal bones
  30. 30. The temporal fossa  is bounded superiorly and posteriorly by the superior and inferior temporal lines,  anteriorly by the frontal and zygomatic bones.  inferiorly by the zygomatic arch