Eukaryotic andProkaryotic Cells    AHMP 5406
Objectives:1.   Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and     eukaryotic cellular components2.   Describe the ba...
Objectives:1.   Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and     eukaryotic cellular components2.   Describe the ba...
1       Features All Cells Share    Hereditary info stored in DNA    Proteins are used as catalysts    DNA replication occ...
From DNA to Protein  (Why is this eukaryotic?)
1              Prokaryotic cells:    No membrane bound organelles    Simple genome organization    Genes usually do not ha...
1    Mycoplasma     genitalium
1                 Eukaryotic cells    All organelles are membrane-bound    Complex genome organization    Large genome siz...
1
Objectives:1.   Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and     eukaryotic cellular components2.   Describe the ba...
1 and 2          General eukaryotic cell
Objectives:1.   Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and     eukaryotic cellular components2.   Describe the ba...
3    Cells can be powered by different             energy sources    I eat other living things!            Organotrophic ...
Objectives:1.   Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and     eukaryotic cellular components2.   Describe the ba...
4     Eukaryotic cell may have been               predators     The primordial eukaryotic cell may have    survived by eat...
4                 Dinidium is a cilliated protozoan                                      Lunch!    He looks hungry
4
4
4
Objectives:1.   Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and     eukaryotic cellular components2.   Describe the ba...
5    Genome organization in Prok. and                Euk.     Prokaryotes        Circular DNA           mtDNA very simila...
5    Prokaryotic DNA
5    Eukaryotic DNA      DNA packaged in a     chromosome     Linear DNA     Associated proteins     More details later
Objectives:1.   Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and     eukaryotic cellular components2.   Describe the ba...
6    Ways to generate new genes from preexisting genes      Intragenic mutation                  Simply a mutation in the...
6                Gene Families     Created by generation of different genes    from a precursor     Speciation results in ...
Objectives:1.   Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and     eukaryotic cellular components2.   Describe the ba...
7    The human genome is complex:        Partly because of duplications
7 Regulatory   DNA is everywherein eukaryotic  genomes
7    mRNA Structure
7    Comparative Genome Sizes
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Lecture

544 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
544
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lecture

  1. 1. Eukaryotic andProkaryotic Cells AHMP 5406
  2. 2. Objectives:1. Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular components2. Describe the basic structure of mammalian eukaryotic cells3. Discuss the different nutritional classes4. Explain the endosymbiotic theory and development of organelles in the Euk. cell5. Compare and contrast the genome organization of prokaryotes versus eukaryotes6. Compare the different ways new genes are generated from existing genes7. Explain why the human genome is complex
  3. 3. Objectives:1. Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular components2. Describe the basic structure of mammalian eukaryotic cells3. Discuss the different nutritional classes4. Explain the endosymbiotic theory and development of organelles in the Euk. cell5. Compare and contrast the genome organization of prokaryotes versus eukaryotes6. Compare the different ways new genes are generated from existing genes7. Explain why the human genome is complex
  4. 4. 1 Features All Cells Share Hereditary info stored in DNA Proteins are used as catalysts DNA replication occurs through templated polymerization Hereditary info transcribed into RNA RNA translated into protein Later we will discuss these things in greater detail
  5. 5. From DNA to Protein (Why is this eukaryotic?)
  6. 6. 1 Prokaryotic cells: No membrane bound organelles Simple genome organization Genes usually do not have introns Between 500 and 4000 genes  M. genitalium has 477 genes Great degree of diversity Unicellular
  7. 7. 1 Mycoplasma genitalium
  8. 8. 1 Eukaryotic cells All organelles are membrane-bound Complex genome organization Large genome size Between 6,000 and 30,000 genes Genes have introns  Where is the genetic diversity? Large amount of regulatory DNA  To control gene expression High degree of genetic redundancy Unicellular or multicellular
  9. 9. 1
  10. 10. Objectives:1. Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular components2. Describe the basic structure of mammalian eukaryotic cells3. Discuss the different nutritional classes4. Explain the endosymbiotic theory and development of organelles in the Euk. cell5. Compare and contrast the genome organization of prokaryotes versus eukaryotes6. Compare the different ways new genes are generated from existing genes7. Explain why the human genome is complex
  11. 11. 1 and 2 General eukaryotic cell
  12. 12. Objectives:1. Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular components2. Describe the basic structure of mammalian eukaryotic cells3. Discuss the different nutritional classes4. Explain the endosymbiotic theory and development of organelles in the Euk. cell5. Compare and contrast the genome organization of prokaryotes versus eukaryotes6. Compare the different ways new genes are generated from existing genes7. Explain why the human genome is complex
  13. 13. 3 Cells can be powered by different energy sources I eat other living things!  Organotrophic Animals Protists etc. I need a tan?  Phototrohpic Bacteria Plants Algae I eat dirt?  Lithotropic Arcaebacteria
  14. 14. Objectives:1. Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular components2. Describe the basic structure of mammalian eukaryotic cells3. Discuss the different nutritional classes4. Explain the endosymbiotic theory and development of organelles in the Euk. cell5. Compare and contrast the genome organization of prokaryotes versus eukaryotes6. Compare the different ways new genes are generated from existing genes7. Explain why the human genome is complex
  15. 15. 4 Eukaryotic cell may have been predators The primordial eukaryotic cell may have survived by eating other cells This would require:  A large cell  A flexible membrane  An elaborate cytoskeleton  Protected DNA (in an organelle, which one?)
  16. 16. 4 Dinidium is a cilliated protozoan Lunch! He looks hungry
  17. 17. 4
  18. 18. 4
  19. 19. 4
  20. 20. Objectives:1. Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular components2. Describe the basic structure of mammalian eukaryotic cells3. Discuss the different nutritional classes4. Explain the endosymbiotic theory and development of organelles in the Euk. cell5. Compare and contrast the genome organization of prokaryotes versus eukaryotes6. Compare the different ways new genes are generated from existing genes7. Explain why the human genome is complex
  21. 21. 5 Genome organization in Prok. and Euk. Prokaryotes  Circular DNA mtDNA very similar Eukaryotes  Linear DNA  nuclear DNA
  22. 22. 5 Prokaryotic DNA
  23. 23. 5 Eukaryotic DNA DNA packaged in a chromosome Linear DNA Associated proteins More details later
  24. 24. Objectives:1. Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular components2. Describe the basic structure of mammalian eukaryotic cells3. Discuss the different nutritional classes4. Explain the endosymbiotic theory and development of organelles in the Euk. cell5. Compare and contrast the genome organization of prokaryotes versus eukaryotes6. Compare the different ways new genes are generated from existing genes7. Explain why the human genome is complex
  25. 25. 6 Ways to generate new genes from preexisting genes Intragenic mutation  Simply a mutation in the sequence Gene duplication  Whole gene is just recopied into different part of the genome DNA segment shuffling  Similar genes may exchange segments Horizontal transfer  Cell to cell transfer of genetic material e.g. Plasmids ancient mitochondrial genes Viruses Sex
  26. 26. 6 Gene Families Created by generation of different genes from a precursor Speciation results in orthologous genes  An organismal phylogeny is produced Gene duplication can result in paralogous genes  A gene phylogeny is produced
  27. 27. Objectives:1. Discuss the key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular components2. Describe the basic structure of mammalian eukaryotic cells3. Discuss the different nutritional classes4. Explain the endosymbiotic theory and development of organelles in the Euk. cell5. Compare and contrast the genome organization of prokaryotes versus eukaryotes6. Compare the different ways new genes are generated from existing genes7. Explain why the human genome is complex
  28. 28. 7 The human genome is complex: Partly because of duplications
  29. 29. 7 Regulatory DNA is everywherein eukaryotic genomes
  30. 30. 7 mRNA Structure
  31. 31. 7 Comparative Genome Sizes

×