What we have marked• Your ability to • NOT – Listen – What you think, but that – Observe you think, hard – Read – What you say, but how – Think you say it, clearly – Collate – What you conclude, but how you defend your – Discern own conclusions – Write – Substantiate
Observations• Strong introduction• Golden thread/garden path• Reading the references• Interacting with the literature• Evidencing your evidence
Some problems are so complex thatyou have to be highly intelligent and well informed just to be undecided about them.” Laurence J. Peter, an educationalist
This module is a ‘wicked’ module• Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber, in a 1973 article for Policy Sciences , used “wicked” to describe the malignant, vicious, tricky and aggressive problems of planning (or intervening in social issues)• Solving the assignment problem is a wicked problem – The information available is non-linear – No clear objectives are available- we have to create our own – Information available is huge, but not exhaustive – There is no overview, we have to ‘fly that kite’ ourselves
Social problems are wicked problems• There is no definitive statement of a wicked (social) problem.• Each (social problem) is an evolving set of interlocking issues and constraints.• In most cases these issues and constraints are people-centric.• This makes wicked (social) problem solving a fundamentally social process.
The next assignment is to find a solution [interventions] to a[wicked] social problem for your MI client, and all the other MI clients create by the class
Solutions to [wicked] issues1. Solutions are not true/false, but good/bad.2. Every problem is the symptom of another problem.3. Every solution is a one-shot deal.4. The answer cannot be wrong.
How do we make problem solving ‘social’?• Rich pictures1. As a process of investigation2. As a process for collaboration3. As a process of idea creation4. As a form of communication
Linking Boundaries• Cohen’s work is about Symbolic (social) Construction of Community• He writes a lot about boundaries• Later in term we will look at Urban Morphology• i.e. How cultural boundaries get ‘written’ on urban landscapes and design• Communities have boundaries- physical, and cultural• We draw boundaries on rich pictures• The module has boundaries• We have boundaries• Cohen’s work is about ‘transgressing’ the boundaries• This balancing between boundaries is called ‘liminality’
to be a critical community development worker is toinhabit liminal places To be: Neither a public, nor wholly private, person, if being authentic To neither work in official, or unofficial, places, if being critical To move communities from space to place, to journey To keep things wicked, never to collapse the tension/paradoxes http://www.liminality.org/about/whatisliminality/