Docker for PHP Developers (NomadPHP)

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Thanks to tools like vagrant, puppet/chef, and Platform as a Service services like Heroku, developers are extremely used to being able to spin up a development environment that is the same every time. What if we could go a step further and make sure our development environment is not only using the same software, but 100% configured and set up like production. Docker will let us do that, and so much more. We’ll look at what Docker is, why you should look into using it, and all of the features that developers can take advantage of.

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Docker for PHP Developers (NomadPHP)

  1. 1. Docker for PHP Developers Chris Tankersley @dragonmantank NomadPHP EU April 2016 NomadPHP EU April 2016 1
  2. 2. Who Am I •  PHP Programmer for over 11 years •  Sysadmin/DevOps for around 9 years •  Using Linux for more than 15 years •  hJps://github.com/dragonmantank •  Author of “Docker for Developers” •  Reigning, Defending, Undisputed PHP MTG Champion of the World NomadPHP EU April 2016 2
  3. 3. Docker NomadPHP EU April 2016 3
  4. 4. What Is Docker? “Docker is an open plaWorm for developers and sysadmins to build, ship, and run distributed applicaXons. ConsisXng of Docker Engine, a portable, lightweight runXme and packaging tool, and Docker Hub, a cloud service for sharing applicaXons and automaXng workflows, Docker enables apps to be quickly assembled from components and eliminates the fricXon between development, QA, and producXon environments.” NomadPHP EU April 2016 4 hJps://www.docker.com/whaXsdocker/
  5. 5. What is it from a technical standpoint? •  Docker is a wrapper around Containers •  Docker Engine is the packaging porXon that builds and runs the containers •  Docker Hub allows you to publish images for others to use •  Docker Machine is a bare-metal provisioning tool •  Docker Swarm is an load-balancing deployment tool •  Docker Compose is a mulX-container build system NomadPHP EU April 2016 5
  6. 6. Containers NomadPHP EU April 2016 6
  7. 7. Normal Bare-Metal Server NomadPHP EU April 2016 7 CPU RAM HD Network OperaXng System nginx PHP DB
  8. 8. Virtual Machines NomadPHP EU April 2016 8 CPU RAM HD Network OperaXng System nginx PHP DB OperaXng System nginx PHP DB OperaXng System Hypervisor
  9. 9. Containers NomadPHP EU April 2016 9 CPU RAM HD Network OperaXng System nginx nginx PHP DB PHP DB
  10. 10. Docker can use many different containers •  Since 0.9.0 it supports: •  LXC (Linux Containers) – Started with LXC when it was released •  OpenVZ •  Systemd-nspawn •  libvert-sandbox •  Qemu/kvm •  BSD Jails •  Solaris Zones •  chroot NomadPHP EU April 2016 10
  11. 11. Runs on *nix and Windows Hyper-V •  No naXve container drivers for OSX* •  Amazon has ElasXc Container Service, and Microsok Azure has Azure Container Service NomadPHP EU April 2016 11
  12. 12. Sorry OSX Users •  Docker support is officially maintained through Docker Toolbox NomadPHP EU April 2016 12
  13. 13. Docker Toolbox also is for Windows NomadPHP EU April 2016 13
  14. 14. Let’s use Docker NomadPHP EU April 2016 14
  15. 15. Running a container •  `docker run` will run a container •  This will not restart an exisXng container, just create a new one •  docker run [opXons] IMAGE [command] [arguments] •  [opXons ]modify the docker process for this container •  IMAGE is the image to use •  [command] is the command to run inside the container •  [arguments] are arguments for the command NomadPHP EU April 2016 15
  16. 16. Running a simple shell NomadPHP EU April 2016 16
  17. 17. Running a simple shell NomadPHP EU April 2016 17
  18. 18. Running a simple shell NomadPHP EU April 2016 18
  19. 19. Running Two Webservers NomadPHP EU April 2016 19
  20. 20. Running Two Webservers NomadPHP EU April 2016 20
  21. 21. Running Two Webservers NomadPHP EU April 2016 21
  22. 22. Running Two Webservers NomadPHP EU April 2016 22
  23. 23. Running Two Webservers NomadPHP EU April 2016 23
  24. 24. Running Two Webservers NomadPHP EU April 2016 24
  25. 25. Running Two Webservers NomadPHP EU April 2016 25
  26. 26. Running Two Webservers NomadPHP EU April 2016 26
  27. 27. Some Notes •  All three containers are 100% self contained •  Docker containers share common ancestors, but keep their own files •  `docker run` parameters: •  --rm – Destroy a container once it exits •  -d – Run in the background (daemon mode) •  -i – Run in interacXve mode •  --name – Give the container a name •  -p [local port]:[container port] – Forward the local port to the container port NomadPHP EU April 2016 27
  28. 28. Volumes NomadPHP EU April 2016 28
  29. 29. Modifying a running container •  `docker exec` can run a command inside of an exisXng container •  Use Volumes to share data NomadPHP EU April 2016 29
  30. 30. Persistent Data with Volumes •  You can designate a volume with -v •  Volumes can be shared amongst containers •  Volumes can mount data from the host system NomadPHP EU April 2016 30
  31. 31. Mounting from the host machine NomadPHP EU April 2016 31
  32. 32. Mounting from the host machine NomadPHP EU April 2016 32
  33. 33. Mounting from the host machine NomadPHP EU April 2016 33
  34. 34. Mounting from the host machine NomadPHP EU April 2016 34
  35. 35. Mounting from the host machine NomadPHP EU April 2016 35
  36. 36. Mounting from the host isn’t perfect •  The container now has a window into your host machine •  Permissions can get screwy if you are modifying in the container •  Most things it creates will be root by default, and you probably aren’t root on the host machine •  Host-mounted volumes are not portable at all •  Docker Toolbox’s VM only allows mounXng from within your home directory NomadPHP EU April 2016 36
  37. 37. Container Data Volumes •  Uses a small container that does nothing but stores data •  Have our app containers use the data volume to store data •  Use ‘editor containers’ to go in and modify data when needed NomadPHP EU April 2016 37
  38. 38. Mounting Data Volumes NomadPHP EU April 2016 38
  39. 39. Mounting Data Volumes NomadPHP EU April 2016 39
  40. 40. Mounting Data Volumes NomadPHP EU April 2016 40
  41. 41. Mounting Data Volumes NomadPHP EU April 2016 41
  42. 42. Mounting Data Volumes NomadPHP EU April 2016 42
  43. 43. Mounting Data Volumes NomadPHP EU April 2016 43
  44. 44. Mounting Data Volumes NomadPHP EU April 2016 44
  45. 45. Mounting Data Volumes NomadPHP EU April 2016 45
  46. 46. Why not run SSH inside of the container? •  Well, you can… •  Docker is designed for one command per container •  If you need to modify data, then you need to change your setup •  If you have to run SSH, then you need a way to run SSH and your command NomadPHP EU April 2016 46
  47. 47. Why go through the hassle? •  Data volumes are portable •  Data volumes are safer •  Separates the app containers from data •  ProducXon can use a data volume, dev can use a host volume •  Our app containers stay small NomadPHP EU April 2016 47
  48. 48. Network Linking NomadPHP EU April 2016 48
  49. 49. Docker Links •  Allows containers to ‘see’ each other over the network •  Each container thinks the other one is just another machine •  Containers all have an internal network address, so we don’t need to expose everything through the host •  Currently only works if all the containers are on one machine, Docker 1.10 should fix that NomadPHP EU April 2016 49
  50. 50. More Traditional Setup NomadPHP EU April 2016 50 INTARWEBS Nginx PHP-FPM Data Volume Port 9000 Editor
  51. 51. Let’s Build It NomadPHP EU April 2016 51
  52. 52. Let’s Build It NomadPHP EU April 2016 52
  53. 53. Let’s Build It NomadPHP EU April 2016 53
  54. 54. Let’s Build It NomadPHP EU April 2016 54
  55. 55. Let’s Build It NomadPHP EU April 2016 55
  56. 56. Let’s Build It NomadPHP EU April 2016 56
  57. 57. More Notes! •  We can now rebuild secXons of the app as needed •  We can restart nginx without impacXng PHP •  We can extend much easier •  Linked containers will not update if they are stopped/started •  If we upgrade PHP, we have to destroy/create the web_server container again NomadPHP EU April 2016 57
  58. 58. Creating your own Images NomadPHP EU April 2016 58
  59. 59. Dockerfile •  Dockerfile is the configuraXon steps for an image •  Can be created from scratch, or based on another image •  Allows you to add files, create default volumes, ports, etc •  Can be used privately or pushed to Docker Hub NomadPHP EU April 2016 59
  60. 60. FROM phusion/baseimage:0.9.10 # … CMD ["/sbin/my_init"] # Nginx-PHP Installation RUN apt-get update RUN apt-get install -y vim git curl wget build-essential python-software-properties php5-cli php5-fpm php5-mysql php5-pgsql php5-sqlite php5-curl php5-gd php5-mcrypt php5-intl php5-imap php5-tidy mysql-client # … RUN mkdir /var/www ADD build/default /etc/nginx/sites-available/default # … EXPOSE 80 22 VOLUME /var/www VOLUME /etc/nginx VOLUME /etc/php/ VOLUME /var/log RUN apt-get clean && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/* /tmp/* /var/tmp/* NomadPHP EU April 2016 60
  61. 61. Build it docker build -t tag_name ./ •  This runs through the Dockerfile and generates the image •  We can now use the tag name to run the image NomadPHP EU April 2016 61
  62. 62. Other Helpful Commands NomadPHP EU April 2016 62
  63. 63. Inspect a container docker inspect [opXons] CONTAINER_NAME •  Returns a JSON string with data about the container •  Can also query •  docker inspect -f “{{ .NetworkSe{ngs.IPAddres }}” web_server •  Really handy for scripXng out things like reverse proxies NomadPHP EU April 2016 63
  64. 64. Work with images •  docker pull IMAGE – Pulls down an image before using •  docker images – Lists all the images that are downloaded •  docker rmi IMAGE – Deletes an image if it’s not being used NomadPHP EU April 2016 64
  65. 65. Docker Machine NomadPHP EU April 2016 65
  66. 66. What is Docker Machine? •  A provisioning tool that is used to set up a box with Docker •  Used in Docker Toolbox to create the VM •  Supports: •  EC2 •  Azure •  Digital Ocean •  Hyper-V •  OpenStack •  Virtualbox •  VMWare NomadPHP EU April 2016 66
  67. 67. Why use it? •  Makes it very easy to spin up new boxes •  Docker Machine handles all of the dirty stuff for you •  Docker Toolbox users are already using it •  Integrates with Docker Swarm •  It is not necessarily portable NomadPHP EU April 2016 67
  68. 68. Docker Swarm NomadPHP EU April 2016 68
  69. 69. What is Docker Swarm? •  Cluster management tool developed by Docker •  Looks like a machine running docker, but is actually many machines NomadPHP EU April 2016 69
  70. 70. Docker Compose NomadPHP EU April 2016 70
  71. 71. What is Docker Compose? •  MulX-container orchestraXon •  A single config file holds all of your container info •  Works with Docker Swarm and a few other tools, like Rancher NomadPHP EU April 2016 71
  72. 72. Sample docker-compose.yml phpserver: build: ./docker/php volumes: - /home/ctankersley/Projects/dockerfordevs:/var/www/ links: - mysqlserver mysqlserver: image: mysql environment: MYSQL_DATABASE: dockerfordevs MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: docker volumes: - /var/lib/mysql nginx: build: ./docker/nginx ports: - "80:80" - "443:443" links: - phpserver NomadPHP EU April 2016 72
  73. 73. Deploying NomadPHP EU April 2016 73
  74. 74. I can’t answer this for you NomadPHP EU April 2016 74 ¯_(ツ)_/¯
  75. 75. Questions? NomadPHP EU April 2016 75
  76. 76. Each situation is different •  You will probably build something custom, using exisXng tools •  Do you use data volumes? •  Do you just package the enXre compiled app? •  Does it need to be distributed? •  Is it going on Swarm, or Amazon ECS? NomadPHP EU April 2016 76
  77. 77. Things to consider •  Docker Compose will only deploy an app to one server •  Docker Swarm is preJy low-level and bare-bones •  Volumes on Swarm cannot be shared across hosts •  Host mounXng is 99.99999% of the Xme not what you want to do NomadPHP EU April 2016 77
  78. 78. Rancher is a good start •  Provides a nice GUI to manage everything •  Allows volume sharing and networking across hosts •  Works with docker-compose.yml files •  These files can be supplemented with environment variables NomadPHP EU April 2016 78
  79. 79. Rancher in action NomadPHP EU April 2016 79
  80. 80. Questions? NomadPHP EU April 2016 80
  81. 81. http://ctankersley.com chris@ctankersley.com @dragonmantank https://joind.in/talk/42cba NomadPHP EU April 2016 81

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