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How We Got Here: A Brief History of Open Source

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How We Got Here: A Brief History of Open Source

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Open Source is one of the core tenets of the PHP language and the community. PHP would not be here if it was not for some of the ideals around software development that occurred in the 50's, 60's, and 70's. How did the open source movement start, and why is PHP one of the few languages that still hold true to those early days of programming? Let's talk about where open source started, and find out how we got here.

Open Source is one of the core tenets of the PHP language and the community. PHP would not be here if it was not for some of the ideals around software development that occurred in the 50's, 60's, and 70's. How did the open source movement start, and why is PHP one of the few languages that still hold true to those early days of programming? Let's talk about where open source started, and find out how we got here.

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How We Got Here: A Brief History of Open Source

  1. 1. A Brief History of Open Source Chris Tankersley @dragonmantank php[world] 2016 php[world] 2016 1
  2. 2. Thank You Sponsors! php[world] 2016 2
  3. 3. php[world] 2016 3
  4. 4. php[world] 2016 4 1.79 MHz 8-bit Processor 128K RAM 640x192 max resolution 64 color palette RS-232 Serial Port Cartridge Bay 2 Joystick Ports Disk Extended Color Basic 2.1
  5. 5. php[world] 2016 5 520 Mhz Apple S1 512MB RAM 390x312 resolution (~303 ppi density) 16 million colors WatchOS
  6. 6. php[world] 2016 6 1.79 MHz 8-bit Processor 128K RAM 640x192 max resolution 64 color palette RS-232 Serial Port Cartridge Bay 2 Joystick Ports Disk Extended Color Basic 2.1
  7. 7. php[world] 2016 7
  8. 8. php[world] 2016 8
  9. 9. php[world] 2016 9
  10. 10. php[world] 2016 10
  11. 11. php[world] 2016 11
  12. 12. php[world] 2016 12 “All information should be free”
  13. 13. The Hacker Ethics • Access to computers – and anything which might teach you something about the way the world works – should be unlimited and total. Always yield to the Hands-On Imperative! • All information should be free • Mistrust Authority – promote decentralization • Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not criteria such as degrees, age, race, sex, or position • You can create art and beauty on a computer • Computers can change your life for the better php[world] 2016 13
  14. 14. php[world] 2016 14
  15. 15. php[world] 2016 15
  16. 16. php[world] 2016 16
  17. 17. php[world] 2016 17 “All information should be free”
  18. 18. php[world] 2016 18
  19. 19. php[world] 2016 19
  20. 20. php[world] 2016 20
  21. 21. php[world] 2016 21
  22. 22. php[world] 2016 22 “I consider that the golden rule requires that if I like a program I must share it with other people who like it. Software sellers want to divide the users and conquer them, making each user agree not to share with others. I refuse to break solidarity with other users in this way. I cannot in good conscience sign a nondisclosure agreement or a software license agreement. For years I worked within the Artificial Intelligence Lab to resist such tendencies and other inhospitalities, but eventually they had gone too far: I could not remain in an institution where such things are done for me against my will.”
  23. 23. php[world] 2016 23
  24. 24. php[world] 2016 24
  25. 25. php[world] 2016 25
  26. 26. php[world] 2016 26
  27. 27. php[world] 2016 27
  28. 28. The Hacker Ethics • Access to computers – and anything which might teach you something about the way the world works – should be unlimited and total. Always yield to the Hands-On Imperative! • All information should be free • Mistrust Authority – promote decentralization • Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not criteria such as degrees, age, race, sex, or position • You can create art and beauty on a computer • Computers can change your life for the better php[world] 2016 28
  29. 29. Thank You! • Co-Host of “Jerks Talk Games” • http://jerkstalkgames.com • Author of “Docker for Developers” • https://leanpub.com/dockerfordevs • http://ctankersley.com • chris@ctankersley.com • @dragonmantank • @jerkstalkgames php[world] 2016 29
  30. 30. Credits • https://www.flickr.com/photos/david_s_carter/2652345453/in/albu m-72157607224927467/ • https://ia600702.us.archive.org/23/items/1983-08-compute- magazine/Compute_Issue_039_1983_Aug.pdf • http://www.oldcarmanualproject.com/brochures/Chev/1956/brochur e/images/1956%20Chevrolet%20(01)_jpg.jpg • By Swtpc6800 en:User:Swtpc6800 Michael Holley - Transfered from en.wikipedia, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3185062 • https://www.flickr.com/photos/hades2k/7001927337 php[world] 2016 30

Editor's Notes

  • * ARPANet adopts the Internet Protocol, creating the internet
    * Ada is standardized by the federal government
    * Mutli-Tool Word, the precursor to MS Word, is released
    Ultima III is released, one of the first RPG games to use turn-based combat
    Sega Laserdisc hardware is released
    The Famicom is released
    The Apple IIe is released
    The MSX is released
    The Acorn Electron, a cut down BBC Micro, is released
  • TX-0, or “tix-oh”
    Used transistors instead of vacuum tubes
    64k of RAM
    Cathode-ray tube display
    Allowed users/developers to interact with programs WHILE THEY RAN
    Loaned to MIT in 1958

    The TX-0 amazed the early computer hackers at MIT. It didn’t use cards, and it wasn’t cloistered away like the hulking behemoth of a machine from IBM that most people at MIT programmed against. You typed your program onto a ribbon of thin paper, fed it into the console, and your program ran.
    Most importantly the TX-0 was not nearly as guarded as the holy IBM 704. Most of the hackers were free to do what they wanted with the machine. There was one problem, and it was somewhat of a large on — the TX-0 had no software.
    So the hackers at MIT created what they needed.
  • 1958
    AT&T lost an antitrust case, which results in them not being able to enter the computer business, and had to license their non-telephone technology to anyone who asked.
  • 1976
    Computers were moving into the homes, and things like the Homebrew Computer Club

  • Altair 8800
    “All information should be free” reared it’s head when the tape containing Altair BASIC disappeared from a seminar put on by MITS at Rickey’s Hyatt House in Palo Alto, California. Why? Ed Roberts, the “father of the personal computer” and the founder of MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) had decided to not give the Altair BASIC software to customers for free and instead charged $200 for the ability to write software.
  • “All information should be free” reared it’s head when the tape containing Altair BASIC disappeared from a seminar put on by MITS at Rickey’s Hyatt House in Palo Alto, California. Why? Ed Roberts, the “father of the personal computer” and the founder of MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) had decided to not give the Altair BASIC software to customers for free and instead charged $200 for the ability to write software.
  • “An Open Letter to Hobbyists” – Feb 3, 1976

    “To me, the most critical thing in the hobby market right now is the lack of good software courses, books, and software itself. […] Almost a year ago, Paul Allen and myself, expecting the hobby market to expand, hired Monte Davidoff and developed Altair BASIC. […] The feedback we have gotten from the hundreds of people who say they are using BASIC has all been positive. Two surprising things are apparent, however. 1) Most of these “users” never bought BASIC […]” 
  • The 1970s also saw the development of the Unix operating system developed at AT&T by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others. Much like the original tools built by the hackers at MIT on the TX-0, Unix grew as it was licensed to other companies and universities.
    Unix was alluring because it was portable, handled multiple users and multi-tasking. Standards help people develop software, and Unix became one of those standards. Before this was Multics for the GE-645 mainframe, but it was not without its faults.
  • The University of California in Berkeley was one of the most sought-after versions of the Unix code base, and started distributing their own variant of BSD in 1978, known as 1BSD, as an add-on to Version 6 Unix.
    There was a hitch though. AT&T owned the copyright to the original Unix software. As time went on AT&T used software from projects outside of themselves, including the Computer Sciences Research Group from Berkeley.
    Eventually AT&T was allowed to sell Unix, but their commercially available version of Unix was missing pieces that were showing up in the Berkeley variant, and BSD tapes contained AT&T code which meant users of BSD required a usage license from AT&T.
  • Its aim is to give computer users freedom and control in their use of their computers and computing devices, by collaboratively developing and providing software that is based on the following freedom rights: users are free to run the software, share it (copy, distribute), study it and modify it. GNU software guarantees these freedom-rights legally (via its license), and is therefore free software; the use of the word "free" always being taken to refer to freedom.
  • In 1971, near the end of his first year at Harvard, he became a programmer at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the hacker culture that Stallman thrived on began to fragment. Propreitary software was becoming the norm.

  • By Eric S. Raymond
  • Bruce Perens and Eric S. Raymond
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