Energy Auditor Training
Level 1 (EA1)
Manual
ENERGY MANAGEMENT TRAINING SERIES

Energy Auditor Training
Level 1 (EA1) Manual

© Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
63 Hill...
Preface
Thank you for participating in the Energy Auditor Training Level 1 ! We believe you will
learn much on energy audi...
the amount of energy produced to meet the requirement of the consumers. CO2 being a
green house gas brings harmful effect ...
T
able of Contents
4.2.2
CHAPTER

1

Measurements

1.1

What is Energy Management?

1

1.2

What is Energy Audit?

2

1.3
...
Index

40

Energy Glossary

41

Conversion Formulae

45

Flow Equivalents

48

Electrical Calculation [10]

50

NOTES

53
...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

Chapter

1
Definitions on Energy
Auditing
‘Energy...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

serve energy, but to achieve organizational aims ...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

measurable. Unlike energy management, energy audi...
Chapter

2
The Six Sigma Way
The answer to the question ‘Why Six Sigma?’ was simple:
Survival.

S

ix Sigma at many organi...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

2.2 Why Six Sigma?
For Motorola, the originator o...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

The DMAIC can be described as follows:
Define

De...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

to improve current performance and to reduce oper...
Chapter

3
Basic Energy Audit
Models
If any of these elements is missing, the activity is not an
Energy Audit but some oth...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

FIGURE 3.1 : The Core Audit.

3.2 The Properties ...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

the duration & cost. There is a significant diffe...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

3.3 Levels or Types of Energy Audits
Three common...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

methodology which is suitable is the DMAIC steps....
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

they provide a high level of confidence. In fact,...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

advanced audit. Also, when the client/customer wa...
Chapter

4
Energy Audit
Methodology
An Energy Audit is NOT done once and for all.

A

n energy audit is not done once and ...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

photographic record of the building envelope and ...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

The generic statement for DMADV steps are as foll...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

4.2 Recommended Survey or Audit
Instrumentation
T...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

traditional analogue meter to digital meter which...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

density, relative humidity, indoor air quality, e...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

occupying the room, and proper system can be impl...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

thoroughness of the audit work as well as to the ...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

Shows a comparison of the energy consumption data...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

summarized, but the tabulations of actual test da...
Chapter

5
Fundamental Audit
Although Fundamental Audit is the cheapest, it can yield a
preliminary estimate of savings po...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

5.1.2
Environmental Instruments
The bulk of consu...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

•

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

Any assumption and clarification should be def...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

IV. Improve energy performance by identifying the...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

The flow diagram for the above steps are shown in...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

5.3 Recommended Analysis and Practices
This secti...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

5.3.2 Examples of Analysis
Example 1: Pattern ana...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

FIGURE 5.4 : Historical Data for Room Relative Hu...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

5.4 Recommended Corrective Measure by
Energy Mark...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

5.4.2 Air-Conditioner
Check
Purpose
1. Temperatur...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

5.4.3 Air-Compressor
Check
Purpose
1. Load Charac...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

5.4.4 Boiler
Check

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

Purpose

1. Steam Pressure
Se...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

8. Whether
Condensate
Recovery is possible
(if co...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

ii) Check the thermostat periodically to ensure t...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

References & Bibliography
[1] Save-Project Final ...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

Index
A

L

advanced, 7, 8

levels, 5, 10, 17, 30...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

Energy Glossary
adjustable speed drive (ASD) - An...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

conservation occurs at the lowest (or "incrementa...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

occurring during the billing period, often only a...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

R-value - A measure of thermal resistance used to...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

Conversion Formulae
To Convert

Multiply By

Inch...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

Liters to cu inches

-

L E V E L

1

( E A 1 )

61.0300

Gallons to liters

...
E N E R G Y

A U D I T O R

T R A I N I N G

-

L E V E L

KCal/hr to btu/hr
Horsepower to watt

Copyright © 2001 Precicon...
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)
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Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)

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This was the first training manual instrumental and developed by Colin Koh in 2001 to provide basic energy audit knowledge for manufacturing customers in Singapore.

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Energy auditor training level 1 (2001)

  1. 1. Energy Auditor Training Level 1 (EA1) Manual
  2. 2. ENERGY MANAGEMENT TRAINING SERIES Energy Auditor Training Level 1 (EA1) Manual © Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 63 Hillview Avenue • #10-21 Lam Soon Industrial Building • Singapore 669569 Phone 760 0006 • Fax 765 4385 http://www.precicon.com.sg Disclaimer Whilst all reasonable care has been taken to ensure that the description, opinions, listings and diagrams are accurate and workable, Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd does not accept any legal responsibility or liability to any person, organization or other entity for any direct loss, consequential loss or damage, however caused, that may be suffered as a result of the use of this publication. All rights to this publication are reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, reproduced, transmitted or stored in any form or by any means (including electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without prior written permission from Precicon Automation (S) Pte. Ltd. First Published in Singapore in 2001 (Version 1.10)
  3. 3. Preface Thank you for participating in the Energy Auditor Training Level 1 ! We believe you will learn much on energy auditing from our lecture as well as hands-on session. It is estimated that the electricity consumption will increase by 4.5% annually in nonJapan Asia, which is the fastest growth in the world. The very fact that you attend this course, it shows that you are well aware of the emerging importance of Energy, one of the most important commodity today. We want to welcome you to this exciting area of Energy Management, which has sparked such high level of attention as a result of the tremendous Asia industrial growth. Why Energy management ? A decade ago, energy is consider a commodity alongside with water, which we buy from the utility companies and pay the monthly bills without asking much about how the money is spent. With the transformation of the industry in term of management & operation, energy has now become one of the aspect that need much effort to consume it more efficiently. From the experience that we have learnt from our customers and partners in the energy business, we believe Energy will continue to be one of the most focused and high growth area in the next ten years. The following are the reasons : Deregulation This is the buzzword which alone has brought the word “Energy Management” into the agenda of the top management of many huge corporations. The energy market of many Asian countries has been deregulated in the past few years, which allows selected consumers to purchase energy freely from a list of energy suppliers which they deem to provide the best package. In this process, potentially large energy cost saving can be achieved by selecting the most optimum supplier. Different energy suppliers offer different energy package based on the energy consumption pattern of their customers. In order to decide on the best party to buy energy from, the consumer itself needs a clear understanding of their own energy consumption pattern which in the past only the total kWh is sufficient. Comprehensive energy monitoring has now becomes the integral part of this effort to save cost through Deregulation. Cost Management Company management is now aware of the huge energy bill that they are paying every month, and the various energy saving programs have been design to reduce this cost. The various operations will be studied to determine if the operation is energy efficient or any unnecessary energy wastage. Activity Based Costing (ABC) is also a trend which has been increasingly adopted by many companies to determine the production & operation cost. It has been well proven that these activities if carried out well are able to cut down energy cost substantially, and this is the reason for the increasing number of companies looking into implementing these programs. Green Business Trend Being environmental friendly in the business operation is now a global business trend for large Multinational Companies (MNCs). Environmental standard such as ISO14000 have been widely adopted by most MNCs which want to ensure their operation does not adversely affect the well being of the environment. Energy consumption is one of the most indirect environment pollutant. Amount of CO2 gas emitted correlate directly to
  4. 4. the amount of energy produced to meet the requirement of the consumers. CO2 being a green house gas brings harmful effect to the environment which includes depleting the ozone layer and increase the earth temperature. This is why energy conservation and management has been one of the important agenda in ISO14000 apart from other aspects such as waste management and emission control. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) TPM is a philosophy which builds a close relationship between Maintenance & Productivity. Production personnel will be instilled a sense of “ownership” of their machines together with the maintenance personnel to continuously improve on the production. As the machine operators are given the task of continuous improvement on their machine together with the maintenance engineer, machine energy management is one of the important activity that can be carried out. Through a simple energy audit on the machine, many potential improvements can be uncovered. The TPM team can now implement steps to improve the productivity and the maintainability of the machine. Some of the example may be: Reduce energy consumption by shutting down the machine during idle time, or early detection of machine abnormalities (Predictive Maintenance). Our Energy Management Methodology We design our training based on the widely used Six Sigma (6σ) Concept and Methodology. Six Sigma is the proven structured approach which has helped companies like Motorola and General Electric to achieve breakthrough performance. This methodology is able to provide a frame work to assist a proper implementation of energy management program, and a precise way to quantify the results in term of the “sigma” achieved. Whether or not you are currently using Six Sigma methodology, we believe this training concept will certainly help you to implement a more effective energy management program after you have completed the course. What will you get at the end of the training ? The Energy Auditor Training Level 1 (EA1) is designed to provide the trainee a fundamental understanding and approach to conduct a simple yet informative energy audit. The trainees will be able to carry out the role as an internal energy auditor to the company and most importantly spearheading energy conservation program. All participants will be awarded a Certification of Attendance upon submitting a self proposed energy audit report on their respective facilities. Thank you once again, and we wish you a pleasant training experience with us ! Yours Sincerely, Colin Koh General Manager Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  5. 5. T able of Contents 4.2.2 CHAPTER 1 Measurements 1.1 What is Energy Management? 1 1.2 What is Energy Audit? 2 1.3 Energy Management vs. Energy 4.3 Presentation of Energy Audit Results 21 Brief Reporting 22 2 4.3.2 General Reporting 22 The Purpose of Energy Auditing 3 4.3.3 Comprehensive Reporting CHAPTER 2.1 19 4.3.1 Audit 1.4 Environmental 2 4.4 What is Six Sigma? 4 2.2 Why Six Sigma? Sigma Improvement Monitoring of Energy Audit 5 2.3 22 CHAPTER Methodology 2.4 Results 5 5.1 Implementing Six Sigma in 6 3.1 3 The Core Element of Energy 5.1.3 26 Other Tools 26 5.2 Fundamental Audit 9 5.3 Recommended Analysis and The Properties of Basic Energy Methodology Levels or Types of Energy Audits Practices 11 3.3.1 Fundamental Audit Intermediate Audit 12 3.3.3 Advanced Audit 12 5.3.1 11 3.3.2 3.4 Environmental 8 Audit Models 3.3 25 Instruments Audit 3.2 25 Measuring Electrical System Performance 5.1.2 CHAPTER 5 Audit Instrumentation 5.1.1 Energy Audit 24 30 Calculating Appliance Use 5.3.2 5.4 Which Type of Survey or Energy Audits Should I Use? 26 30 Examples of Analysis 31 Recommended Corrective Measure by Energy Market 13 Authority, Singapore 33 5.4.1 CHAPTER 4.1 The Audit Procedure 4.2 Instrumentation 4.2.1 18 Air-Compressor 35 Boiler 36 18 5.5 An Example of Energy Audit 37 5.6 Measuring Electrical System Performance 34 5.4.4 Recommended Survey or Audit Air-Conditioner 5.4.3 15 33 5.4.2 4 Lighting Conclusion 38 References & Bibliography 39
  6. 6. Index 40 Energy Glossary 41 Conversion Formulae 45 Flow Equivalents 48 Electrical Calculation [10] 50 NOTES 53 ENERGY AUDIT CHECK LIST 56 INFORMATION OF LIGHTING 57 INFORMATION OF ROOM TEMPERATURE & RELATIVE HUMIDITY 58 INFORMATION OF GENERAL ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES 59 INFORMATION OF ROOM AIRCONDITIONER ENERGY AUDIT WORKSHOP 60 61
  7. 7. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) Chapter 1 Definitions on Energy Auditing ‘Energy audit’ is only a general term, like ‘a vehicle’. I n principle, the term ‘energy audit’ is well known and widely used. However, there is one problem which can easily lead to misunderstandings of the term. The fact is that the term ‘energy audit’ is only a general term like ‘a vehicle’. What actually meant by the term in an individual conversations can, in practical term, include an extremely wide range of different applications. The term ‘energy audit’ is a good general definition but should also be used only as such[1]. The variety within the family of energy audits should be understood. The importance of defining the content and the scope of the audit in more detail should be emphasized in an individual applications. Majority of the different kinds of energy audits have been developed on national level and for a specific purpose – like the different types of vehicle: vans, station wagons, sports cars, motorbike etc.. Therefore, although the terminology seems to be similar, it is very likely that the actual subject of the discussion is more or less different from individual applications. 1.1 What is Energy Management? In the total quality system, the Energy Management is a vital element of any organization. Energy Management in practical terms means placing a focus on energy as a cost factor in a company. It also implies influencing the consumer’s behavior in terms of energy, the promotion of an economical energy operation and disclosing possibilities for energy saving. Furthermore, it is also important in ensuring a company’s energy supply, in the form of correct amount, quality and price. The aim of the energy management is to achieve organizational objectives at minimum energy consumption and cost [3]. This might sound obvious, but there can be the danger that focusing on energy efficiency in isolation can lead to other vital elements or core business needs being overlooked. The key message is simple – energy is there to serve both human and organizations. Human are not here to Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 1
  8. 8. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) serve energy, but to achieve organizational aims at minimum energy consumption and cost. The establishment of routines ensuring a continuous improvement with regard to the optimization of energy costs is the main task in connection with energy management. This takes place through the use of a management system involving designated individuals in the organization. These are made responsible for carrying out different tasks within the registration and data processing, the development of key figures, information, etc.. The latter is implemented through a plan based on the energy policy and the objectives established for the operation [3]. 1.2 What is Energy Audit? en er gy au dit en-er-je od-et noun : The identification of economically-justified operating cost reduction opportunities associated with manufacturing and processing plant building, utility, and processing systems – most typically those opportunities resulting in significantly lowered electrical, natural gas, steam, water and sewer costs [2]. An energy audit, also called a feasibility study or technical assistance report, is typically needed to identify technically viable and cost effective energy projects that will reduce energy use and operating costs in the facility[1]. The term energy audit is commonly used to describe a broad spectrum of energy studies ranging from a quick walk-through of a facility to identify major problem areas to a comprehensive analysis of the implications of alternative energy efficiency measures sufficient to satisfy the financial criteria of sophisticated investors. In recap, an Energy Audit is defined as a systematic procedure that [1] • Obtains an adequate knowledge of the existing energy consumption profile of the site • Identifies the factors that have an effect on the energy consumption • Identifies and scales the cost-effective energy savings opportunities. The term Energy Audit as such specifies only in general the content of working method but does not define the goal & objective, actual scope, the details of the survey or the duration & cost of the survey. 1.3 Energy Management vs. Energy Audit Energy management is, like other management systems, system oriented – or, it represents a procedure or routine that will create results, where the results are 2 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  9. 9. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) measurable. Unlike energy management, energy audit is a series of studies on the properties of energy in a particular site. Therefore, energy audit is the subset of energy management, which can be seen clearly in the main components of energy management. The main components of energy management are as follows [3]: Energy Policy Energy Analysis Energy Objectives Energy Program Training Energy Administration Energy Audit Annual Report 1.4 The Purpose of Energy Auditing There are various reason and purpose of conducting energy auditing in the site or building. The primary purpose is to gain benefit from the audit one way or another. Those benefits can be can be group into the following categories [1]:Financial benefits; which reduce the operating cost. Organizational benefits; which improve the market image of private business, assists the administration of a building or industrial site to improve human comfort and productivity as well as process and product quality, enhance the quality of the energy profile based on the ISO 9000 series and enhance the structure of the energy or facility managements programs. An environmental benefit; which is the external value, i.e. by reducing the emissions of air pollutants, achieves national or regional energy and environmental policies and also the ISO 14000 series. Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 3
  10. 10. Chapter 2 The Six Sigma Way The answer to the question ‘Why Six Sigma?’ was simple: Survival. S ix Sigma at many organizations simply means a measure of quality that strives for near perfection. Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach and technique for eliminating defects in any process – from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service. The fundamental objective of the Six Sigma approach is the implementation of a measurement-based strategy that focuses on process improvement and variation reduction through the application of Six Sigma improvement projects. In this chapter, the integration and conceptualized of the Energy Audit Model. Using the concept or the way of Six Sigma approach will be described and explained. 2.1 What is Six Sigma? Six Sigma is a business initiative, not a quality initiative. Six Sigma is an umbrella term for a philosophy and way of running a business that improves quality and productivity and increases profits. The term Six Sigma is a term coined at Motorola, Inc. in the 1980’s. this came after years of continuously improving product and process quality. Motorola used this term as a banner and target to achieve breakthrough results. Six Sigma is also a rigorous, focused and highly effective implementation of proven quality principles and techniques. Incorporating elements from the work of many quality pioneers, Six Sigma aims for virtually error free business performance. Sigma, σ, is a letter in the Greek alphabet used by statisticians to measure the variability in any process. A company's performance is measured by the sigma level of their business processes. The ‘Six Sigma’ term also refers to a philosophy, goal and/or methodology utilized to drive out waste and improve the quality, cost and time performance of any business. 4 Precicon Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  11. 11. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) 2.2 Why Six Sigma? For Motorola, the originator of Six Sigma, the answer to the question "Why Six Sigma?" was simple: survival. Motorola came to Six Sigma because it was being consistently beaten in the competitive marketplace by foreign firms that were able to produce higher quality products at a lower cost. Today, Motorola is known worldwide as a quality leader and a profit leader. After Motorola won the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in 1988 the secret of their success became public knowledge and the Six Sigma revolution was on. [11] Today it's hotter than ever. It would be a mistake to think that Six Sigma is about quality in the traditional sense. Quality, defined traditionally as conformance to internal requirements, has little to do with Six Sigma. Six Sigma is about helping the organization make more money. To link this objective of Six Sigma with quality requires a new definition of quality. For Six Sigma purposes, quality is defined as the value added by a productive endeavor. Quality comes in two flavors: potential quality and actual quality. [11] Potential quality is the known maximum possible value added per unit of input. Actual quality is the current value added per unit of input. The difference between potential and actual quality is waste. Six Sigma focuses on improving quality (i.e., reduce waste) by helping organizations produce products and services better, faster and cheaper. In more traditional terms, Six Sigma focuses on defect prevention, cycle time reduction, and cost savings. Unlike mindless cost-cutting programs which reduce value and quality, Six Sigma identifies and eliminates costs which provide no value to customers, waste costs. 2.3 Sigma Improvement Methodology In this Energy Audit perspective, only two method will be implemented, i.e. the DMAIC and DMADV. This section will describe the original characteristic of the Sigma Methodology. DMAIC is the acronyms for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. Whereas DMADV is the acronyms for Define, Measure, Analyze, Design and Verify. The similarity of DMAIC and DMADV are both [12]: Six Sigma methodologies used to drive defects to less than 3.4 per million opportunities. Data intensive solution approaches. Intuition has no place in Six Sigma -only cold, hard facts. Implemented by Green Belts, Black Belts and Master Black Belts. Ways to help meet the business/financial bottom-line numbers. Implemented with the support of a champion and process owner. Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 5
  12. 12. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) The DMAIC can be described as follows: Define Define the project goals and customer (internal and external) deliverables Measure Measure the process to determine current performance Analyze Analyze and determine the root cause(s) of the defects Improve Improve the process by eliminating defects Control Control future process performance The DMAIC methodology should be used when a product or process is in existence at the company but is not meeting customer specification or is not performing adequately. The DMADV can be described as follows: Define Define the project goals and customer (internal and external) deliverables Measure Measure and determine customer needs and specifications Analyze Analyze the process options to meet the customer needs Design Design (detailed) the process to meet the customer needs Verify Verify the design performance and ability to meet customer needs The DMADV methodology should be used when: A product or process is not in existence at your company and one needs to be developed. The existing product or process exists and has been optimized (using either DMAIC or not) and still doesn’t meet the level of customer specification or six sigma level. 2.4 Implementing Six Sigma in Energy Audit As discussed in Chapter One on the purposes of energy auditing, it can be clearly seen that the ultimate purposes of Energy Audit and Six Sigma is quite similar, i.e. 6 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  13. 13. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) to improve current performance and to reduce operating cost and increase savings. Since Six Sigma is proven to be an effective tools to achieve those purposes, hence the concept of Six Sigma DMAIC and DMADV seems to be the best adoption for and implemented into Energy Audit Model. The Six Sigma DMAIC process is an improvement system for existing processes falling below specification. Whereas, the Six Sigma DMADV process is an improvement system used to develop new processes or products at Six Sigma quality levels. In the Energy Audit Model, DMAIC would be best used in the Fundamental and Intermediate level of auditing because it is the most economical process and also it involve the low level of implementation which the main objective is to improve current performance without involving major investment or changes in the operation. However, after the implementation of DMAIC has been done and still does not produce any further improvement, then the DMADV methodology should be applied. The DMADV methodology would then be involved in major changes and investment in the energy audit model, with the hope that it would help the organization to achieve the ultimate purpose and objective of energy policy in the organization itself. Hence, this DMADV methodology is more suitable for Intermediate and Advanced level of auditing. The details of the proposed methodology will be discussed thoroughly in the respective section. The following diagram display the flow of DMAIC and DMADV in general form. FIGURE 2.1 : The DMAIC and DMADV of Energy Audit. Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 7
  14. 14. Chapter 3 Basic Energy Audit Models If any of these elements is missing, the activity is not an Energy Audit but some other kind of survey or consultant work. E nergy audits can take many forms, from superficial inspections to comprehensive engineering studies. This chapter focuses on the basic energy audit models and various type of audit that is available in the current practices. The importance of understanding the various types of energy audit will enhance the selection of the proper auditing method for individual premises. 3.1 The Core Element of Energy Audit To be able to make some restrictions to what approaches can be called energy audits, there are some requirements that must be fulfilled. The basic requirement for a working method of an Energy Audit is called a Core Audit [1]. The Core Audit is the heart of all possible energy audits and includes the following steps of:Evaluating the current energy performance Identifying of energy saving possibilities Reporting. If any of these elements is missing, there is no Core Audit and the activity is not an Energy Audit but some other kind of survey or consultant work [1]. Figure 3.1 describes the core element of energy audit. 8 Precicon Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  15. 15. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) FIGURE 3.1 : The Core Audit. 3.2 The Properties of Basic Energy Audit Models When conducting energy audit, there are different levels of instruction for auditing and it varies according to different focus of a site or building. The purpose of introducing the basic energy audit models is to avoid misunderstanding and confusion over the different approaches. The understanding of the term ‘model’ in this context indicates that there is a set of agreement in features or requirements which are designed for specific types of energy audit application. In a model, the goal and objectives, actual scope, the details of the survey or the duration & cost of the survey are defined. Hence, the criteria of a ‘model’ should be fulfilled by those different practices and procedures, which is a good term to be used in order to separate the standard procedures from the ‘do-as-you-like’ procedures [1]. In the Basic Energy Audit Models, the following properties are defined:The goal and objective The scope The details of the survey The duration and cost. Although the basic models can be applied in practice, these Basic Energy Audit Models should be seen more as modeling tools than actual adaptable working methods. The basic models can present the next level of accuracy to the general term energy audit by defining the goal & objective, scope, details of the survey and Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 9
  16. 16. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) the duration & cost. There is a significant difference in understanding if we speak about just a vehicle or about pick-ups, bus or car, as described in Chapter 1. The goal and objective of an energy audit may varies according to the purposes for conducting the energy auditing, i.e. either for general purposes such as pointing out the major savings areas or for describing in detail the actual saving measures so that they can be implemented easily. This goal and objective may be either survey and study the areas of possible energy savings or analyzing in detail the individual energy saving measures for further implementation. The scope of an energy audit may be different because an energy audit may cover a site or a building in various ways. At the ‘narrowest’, an energy audit covers typically only one specific system or a process, whereas at the ‘broadest’ scope, it covers everything inside the site fence. Between these ‘narrow and broad ends’ there are energy audits that deliberately ignore some areas or issues. An energy auditor can use ‘general or a comprehensive’ approaches when looking for saving potential in which it describe the detail of the survey. The detail of the audit is connected to the audit model, and is normally directly related to the duration and cost spent on the project. The cost of an energy audit is based on the auditors’ fee, the labor cost of the client’s own personnel, auditing instrumentation or other indirect expenses which required to conduct the energy audit. The duration of the project can ranged from few days to few years depending on the types of auditing. The duration and cost of the energy auditing can be either ‘ice or gold’, i.e. cheap and short period or expensive and extremely long period. These properties of energy audit models are illustrated in Figure 3.2. The Goal and Objective To Implement To Study The Scope Narrow Broad The Details of the Survey Comprehensive General The Duration and Cost Ice Gold FIGURE 3.2 : The Properties of Basic Energy Audit Models 10 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  17. 17. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) 3.3 Levels or Types of Energy Audits Three common audit levels are described in more detail below, although the actual tasks performed and level of effort may vary with the auditor providing services under these broad headings. The only way to insure that a proposed audit will meet your specific needs is to spell out those requirements in a detailed scope of work. Taking the time to prepare a formal solicitation will also assure the building owner of receiving competitive and comparable proposals. The following table demonstrates the different audit levels as compare to their respective characteristic. The details of each characteristic will be discussed in the following section. TABLE 3.1: Energy Management Framework Characteristic Technology Methodology Scope Monitoring & Measurement Control Cost Timeframe Levels Fundamental Intermediate Advanced DMAIC DMAIC/DMADV DMADV Machine/Equipement Production Plant/Building Line/Departmental Low Cost Data On-line Monitoring Web-based/ Logger Remote Operational Low Cost Automation Capital Investment Low One-off Moderate Mid-term High Long-term 3.3.1 Fundamental Audit The fundamental audit, alternatively called a simple audit, preliminary audit, screening audit or walk-through audit, is the simplest and quickest type of audit. It involves minimal interviews with site operating personnel, a brief review of facility utility bills and other operating data, and a walk-through of the facility to become familiar with the building operation and identify glaring areas of energy waste of inefficiency. Typically, during this type of audit, it will only cover the major problem areas. Corrective measures are briefly described, and quick estimates of implementation cost, potential operating cost savings, and simple payback periods area also provided. This level of detail while not sufficient of reaching a final decision on implementing a proposed measure, is adequate to prioritize energy efficiency projects and determine the need for a more detailed audit. In recap, it is a visual inspection of the facility is made to determine maintenance and operation energy saving opportunities plus collection of information to determine the need for a more detailed analysis. Referring to the Table 3.1, the best Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 11
  18. 18. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) methodology which is suitable is the DMAIC steps. This is because in this level, there will not be major changes in the existing system but only an operational improvement to the current performance, which involve low cost investment and the duration is very short. Moreover, the scope of involvement or concentration, not limited to the specific area, is normally within the machine or equipment level and the technologies used are usually the low cost data logger. 3.3.2 Intermediate Audit The intermediate audit alternatively called a mini-audit, general audit, site-energy audit or complete site energy audit expands on the fundamental audit as described above by collecting more detailed information about facility operation and performing a more detailed evaluation of energy conservation measures identified. Utility bills are collected for a 12 to 36 month period (if available) to allow the auditor to evaluate the facility’s energy/demand rate structures, energy usage profiles and trending. Additional metering of specific energy-consuming systems is often performed to supplement utility data. In-dept interviews with facility operating personnel are conducted to provide a better understanding of major energy consuming systems as well as insight into variations in daily and annual energy consumption and demand. This type of audit will be able to identify all energy conservation measures appropriate for the facility given its operating parameters. A detailed financial analysis is performed for each measure based on detailed implementation cost estimates, site-specific operating cost savings, and the customer’s investment criteria. Sufficient detail is provided to justify project implementation. In recap, this type of audit requires tests and measurements to quantify energy uses and losses and determine the economics for changes. Referring to Table 3.1, the most suitable steps for this level could be either DMAIC or DMADV, depending to the requirement of the organization. This is because if the DMAIC steps could not further improve current performance, hence the DMADV steps should be applied. However, with this options, the cost of investment in this level should be kept moderate and not too expensive because the scope of auditing does not involve the whole plant but merely production line or departmental levels. Moreover, the technologies that will be applied at this level are usually semipermanent based tools because of the timeframe of this audit, i.e. mid-term which is usually within 1-3 years. The mentioned tools are more suitable if it can be monitored online and the implementation of low cost automation could be applied too in order to further improve the energy performance in the organization. 3.3.3 Advanced Audit In most corporate settings, upgrades to a facility’s energy infrastructure must compete with non-energy related investment for capital funding. Both energy and non-energy investments are rated on a single set of financial criteria that generally stress the expected return on investment (ROI) [8]. The projected operating savings from the implementation of energy projects must be developed such that 12 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  19. 19. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) they provide a high level of confidence. In fact, investors often demand guaranteed savings. The advanced audit alternatively called an investment-grader audit, detailed audit, maxi audit, or technical analysis audit, expands on the intermediate audit as described above by providing a dynamic model of energy use characteristics of both the existing facility and all energy conservation measures identified. The building model is calibrated against actual utility data to provide a realistic baseline against which to compute operating savings for proposed measure. Extensive attention is given to understanding not only the operating characteristics of all energy consuming systems, but also situations that cause load profile variations on both an annual and daily basis. Existing utility data is supplemented with submetering of major energy consuming systems and monitoring of system operating characteristics [8]. In recap, this type of audit contains an evaluation of how much energy is used for each function such as lighting, process, etc; and also requires a model analysis such as a computer simulation, to determine energy use patterns and predictions on a year-round basis, taking into account such as variables weather data. Referring to Table 3.1, the best applied steps could be DMADV because in this level, there will be major changes in the plant, so that maximum improvement from the current energy performance could be achieved and the duration is also very timely and long, usually more than 3 years. The main objective for this level is to ensure that the capital investment are well planned and there will be maximum investment return which is in according to the energy policy of the organization. Moreover, the ‘permanent’ monitoring and measurement tools are usually installed in the plant with the capability of continuous monitoring , either through internet or remote monitoring system, to constantly ensure that the optimum steps are taken and energy performance are kept at the best level. 3.4 Which Type of Survey or Energy Audits Should I Use? The type of survey or audit to use will be determined by several factors. The purpose, reason, or need for performing a survey or audit will help determine which type is required for each project. For example, if the building owner or property manager simply wants a ‘checkup’ of the energy systems or wants to know if there is potential for a energy system upgrade that will pay back in a certain time, then a fundamental audit will satisfy these needs. However, if the systems have been in place for more than 20 years and not much has been done to upgrade to newer technology, then the advanced audit is more suitable. The type of building can also help determine the type of survey or audit. The cost of the survey or audit can also be a factor in deciding which type of survey to use. The size and scope of a facility will also influence the decision. Intermediate audits are commonly used for schools, hospitals, hotels and restaurants. However, a college campus with many different building types, built over several decades, will benefit most from an Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 13
  20. 20. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) advanced audit. Also, when the client/customer wants to explore several upgrade options, the advanced audit is most suitable. The more data required, the more measurements needed – and more measurements require more analysis. As the need for more data and measurements becomes apparent, the auditor is moved up the hierarchy from fundamental to advanced audits. Firms that perform audits on a regular basis have little difficulty deciding which type of survey or audit is best for any given project. This decision will be based on their past experience involving many different building sizes and types, the scope of the upgrade, and the cost of the audits. The following table proposed a list of questions, which help to determine the level of audit that best suits your needs. TABLE 3.2: Proposed Recommendation of Energy Audit from California Energy Commission [9]. Questions to determine which level of audit needs Do you want a general analysis of the potential for energy project in the facility? Do you already have an energy audit completed? Have some energy efficiency projects been installed? Do you have limited funds to spend on an audit? Do you know what projects you want to implement? Do you want a document that serves as an energy plan for your facility? Are you concerned about accuracy of energy project savings and cost? 14 We recommend this if the answer is “Yes” Fundamental Energy Audit We recommend this if the answer is “No” Intermediate Energy Audit Existing studies may only need to be updated to get project funded. Intermediate audit focusing on specific projects not previously analyzed Fundamental or Intermediate Audit Intermediate Audit Fundamental audit, Intermediate audit or Advanced audit. Advanced audit Advanced audit Fundamental audit, Intermediate audit or Advanced audit. Advanced audit. Fundamental or Advanced audit. Fundamental or Intermediate audit Intermediate audit Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  21. 21. Chapter 4 Energy Audit Methodology An Energy Audit is NOT done once and for all. A n energy audit is not done once and for all. It is an ongoing process of comparison between theory and practice, leading to an ever-improving understanding of what energy is being used, why it is being used, how it is being used and at what cost. By understanding in detail the ways in which energy is utilized in a factory, ways and means of effecting savings can be identified. Hence, this chapter will focus on the methodology of energy auditing to achieve the ultimate goal of the energy management. 4.1 The Audit Procedure The main purpose of having defined the audit procedure is to covers all basic actions from the beginning of the actual audit work to the reporting and finishing of the project. The procedure in practice varies according to the audit model in use and to the possible application or interface, into which the energy audit is connected. The main objective regulating the audit procedure is to ensure the quality and conformity of the audits within an audit program. A successful energy audit starts with a detailed site investigation to observe and determine when and where your facility uses energy. Each energy consuming system is fully characterized so that potential improvements can be quantified in terms of both energy and cost savings. Several levels of calculation methods are applied to quantify energy savings. Plant engineering and maintenance or facility personnel are interviewed since they, above all persons, understand the operation of the building, where the problems lie, and usually what the energy efficient solutions are. Field measurements of actual conditions are made to substantiate system operating parameters. In addition, in order to clearly communicate the measures under evaluation, a Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 15
  22. 22. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) photographic record of the building envelope and major system components is compiled. As mentioned in Chapter 2, basically the audit procedure can be divided into two types of steps, i.e. the DMAIC or DMADV. Depending on the requirement and the need of the organization, the auditor has the choice to choose between DMAIC and DMADV. However, there are difference between Six Sigma DMAIC and DMADV, as discussed in Chapter 2. Nevertheless, those steps will be conceptualized and incorporated into the energy audit procedure. For the DMAIC, the generic statement for each steps are as follows:Define the properties of Energy Audit; i.e. to define the goals and objectives, the scope, the details of survey and the duration and cost of the audit level. Measure, monitor and survey the site to determine current performance of energy in the proposed site. Analyze and evaluate the energy performance to determine whether does it meet the organization requirement on energy performance and to identify the root cause(s) of the low performance. Improve energy performance by identifying the possibilities steps in energy saving Control future process performance by proper documentation in reporting and continuous monitoring. FIGURE 4.1 : Five Distinct DMAIC Steps of Energy Audit Procedure 16 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  23. 23. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) The generic statement for DMADV steps are as follows:Define the properties of Energy Audit; i.e. to define the goals and objectives, the scope, the details of survey and the duration and cost of the audit level. Measure, monitor and survey the site to determine current performance of energy in the proposed site. Analyze and evaluate the energy performance to determine whether does it meet the organization requirement on energy performance and to identify the root cause(s) of the low performance. Design and re-engineered the existing system to enhance the energy performance in the plant/building. Verify the design performance and ability to meet the targeted energy performance level FIGURE 4.2 : Five Distinct DMADV Steps of Energy Audit Procedure As described earlier, the first three steps of these DMAIC and DMADV share the same generic statement because those steps are the necessary steps to determine which steps should follows next. With the results from the analysis, the auditor has the determine the next steps, which can be either improvement steps, i.e. DMAIC, or redesign the whole system in the plant using the DMADV steps. The choice of choosing either steps very much depending on the engineering judgment of the auditing team. However, one can follow the suggested procedure as tabulated in Table 3.1, which is suitable for any organization to adopt it.. Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 17
  24. 24. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) 4.2 Recommended Survey or Audit Instrumentation The requirement for an energy audit to quantify as well as to identify where energy is being used necessitates measurements. These measurements require the use of instruments. The basic instruments used in energy audit work are described below. Normally, these instruments are portable, durable, easy to operate and relatively inexpensive. With the advancement of technology in the electronic world today, these instruments are more sophisticated in its performance and simple to used, and in short, it is also known as ‘Plug-n-Play’ (PnP) concept. While being similar, many of the instruments considered operate differently. For this reason, detailed operating instructions for all instruments must be consulted and staff should familiarize themselves with the instruments and their operation prior to actual audit use. 4.2.1 Measuring Electrical System Performance To conduct an electrical survey, there are few parameters, which normally required in order to perform the analysis. Those parameters are ampere, voltage, real power (W), reactive power (VAR), apparent power (VA), power factor and power consumption (kWh). The parameters can be either from the single phase or three phase system, depending on the equipments or monitoring site. Most of the instruments should be easily attached and removed. These instruments are described below. 4.2.1.1 Energy Meter In order to do an Energy Audit, it is natural that the Energy Meter is the first tool that you should come into your mind. Choosing the right tool for the right job may need careful consideration. There are essentially two main groups of Energy Meter which serve to address different needs of the Energy Auditor. They are the portable type and the permanently install type. Portable type Energy Meter comes in a form of a handheld with the option having a limited memory build in for data storage. This type of device is ideal if the Energy Auditor wish to obtain quick but coarse energy data from his building. He is able to move around the building and collect energy data which can help to have a first level understanding of the existing condition. While the portable meter is an handy tool to acquire data, it often time is not able to capture enough data or trending to allow a more in depth behaviour of the system. Permanently installed Energy Meter, on another hand, is able to provide the energy auditor with a wealth of data for more in depth analysis. However, permanently installed meter requires a higher monetary investment in term of purchasing the meters as well as installation work. Permanently installed meter has ranged from 18 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  25. 25. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) traditional analogue meter to digital meter which allows long distance communication that eliminate the meter reading work. With an energy meter which is able to provide a broader spectrum of measurement apart from energy consumption, other form of saving can be achieve. Example: An energy meter which also measure current and power factor may be able to give diagnostic information about an air-con compressor which has unbalance load and poor factor. By conducting a thorough check on the system, breakdown may be prevented which may cause disastrous effect in a mission critical application such as clean room and internet data centre (iDC). FIGURE 4.2 : An Example of Permanently Installed Power Meter (Courtesy of Veris Industries, LLC.) FIGURE 4.3 An Example of Permanently Installed Power Meter (Courtesy of ElectroIndustries/GaugeTech) 4.2.2 Environmental Measurements It has been proven that substantial energy cost can be saved just by carrying out some operational adjustment, especially in the area of air-conditioning system. Studies have revealed that many buildings are having air-con rooms which are much too cold for the comfort of the occupants. This findings establish a starting point for the energy auditors to tackle the energy consumption by measuring the environmental parameters such as temperature. To maximize the system performance, knowledge of the environmental parameters is important. Those information are such as temperature of a fluid, surface, light Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 19
  26. 26. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) density, relative humidity, indoor air quality, etc. Several types of those devices are described in this section. FIGURE 4.4 : An Integrated RH/Temp/Light Logger (Courtesy of Onset Computer Corporation.) 4.2.2.1 Light ON//OFF Logger Light ON/OFF Logger provides information on the status of lighting in a particular location. This is a tool which can be used to reduce the unnecessary ON time of lighting which can be easily implemented by fine tuning the daily operation or install automatic timer to shut down the lightings. 4.2.2.2 Temperature / Humidity Logger This is the basic tool which any Energy Auditor will require to have the temperature and relative humidity of a location. As have been mentioned previously, many air-conditioned buildings have found to have temperature which is way too cold for the comfort of the occupants. The temperature/humidity logger can effectively identified places where the temperature & humidity has been “overconditioned” and resulting in wasting energy unnecessarily. The Singapore local energy code has specified a max/min dry bulb temperature of 25.5°C /22.5°C and a relative humidity of max 70% for air-conditioned space. This can be used as a reference on how efficient the energy has been used on the air-con system. FIGURE 4.5 : Different types of Air Quality Sensors (Courtesy of Veris Industries, LLC) 4.2.2.3 Carbon Dioxide Sensor Another parameter which dictate how comfortable a room condition is, apart from temperature and humidity is the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) level. These sensors can be used to check if the air-con has been turn on unnecessarily. Should the sensor senses very low CO2 content, it can be safely concluded that no people is actually 20 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  27. 27. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) occupying the room, and proper system can be implemented to switch off the aircon or lighting accordingly to save energy. 4.2.2.4 Infrared Thermography Infrared Thermographic Camera has been widely used traditionally as a diagnostic tool to locate faulty parts or loose switch gear connection. It is, however, able to be used as a tool to locate area where hidden energy wastage is taking place. By rectifying problems such as loose switch gear connection and leakage in the aircon system, the overall efficiency of the system can be improved and much energy wastage can be avoided. FIGURE 4.6 : Infrared Camera (Courtesy of ITC International) FIGURE 4.7 : Infrared Thermography image showing overheating in a motor (Courtesy of ITC International) 4.3 Presentation of Energy Audit Results An energy audit is only as good as the quality of the final report in regardless to how accurate and precise the data and how careful and comprehensive the calculations. An energy audit report is essentially like a sales document. Its purpose is to ‘sell’ management on the idea of investing money in energy conservation measures in competition with other investment alternatives. Like all good sales material, it must be concise, direct and convincing. In principle, the reporting of an energy audit can be done at three different levels. The three options described in the following are also closely connected to the Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 21
  28. 28. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) thoroughness of the audit work as well as to the program level properties of monitoring and quality control. 4.3.1 Brief Reporting Typical brief reporting usually is of the following types or a combination of them [1]: A summary A check-list A statement This type of reporting is very brief, which usually very focused and also technically sound. It may include simple graphs and tables for explanation. It is most suitable for the fundamental energy audit model. Moreover, it concentrates strictly on the suggested energy saving measures whereas the other options often describe the technical systems of the building. 4.3.2 General Reporting General Reporting consists of the following [1]: Concentrates on the detected energy saving measures Includes descriptions of the proposed energy saving measures (savings and costs) Shows the present consumption figures Introduces the site very briefly As compare to brief reporting, the general reporting gives the management a quite good illustration on the current situation. It still does not go into the detail descriptions of the technical systems but all suggested energy saving measures are presented at a level which gives the management some concrete data for decision making. 4.3.3 Comprehensive Reporting Comprehensive reporting consists of the following information [1]. Includes a comprehensive description of the site (systems, operation, production) Presents a breakdown of the total energy consumption Introduces all profitable energy saving measures in detail, including some comments on implementation, saving calculations, cost estimates Ranks the saving measures according to e.g. simple payback time 22 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  29. 29. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) Shows a comparison of the energy consumption data with statistical values, benchmarking indexes, etc. Includes tables and graphs of measured values to improve the information value of the report. Comprehensive reporting is suitable for all detail analyzing models. On the basis of the information presented in the comprehensive reporting, all the proposed energy saving measures can be either implemented, or at least the decision of implementation can be made. All calculations are presented with the corresponding basic criteria so that the applicability of the suggested saving measures can be checked [1]. Table 4.1 shows a suggested outline for a typical energy audit report. The report should begin with an executive summary, which briefly describes the procedures that were carried out and concentrates primarily on the final results. The executive summary should contain a table of energy conservation project recommendations listed in order of priority. TABLE 4.1: Suggested Outline for an Energy Audit Report Executive Summary Chapter 1: Introduction to the Energy Audit Program Chapter 2: Energy Audit Procedures and Methodology Chapter 3: Description of the Plant Energy Distribution/Breakdown Chapter 4: Analysis of Energy Conservation Opportunities Chapter 5: Recommendations/Suggestions for Project Implementation Chapter 6: Conclusion Appendixes: Data Compilation List of Equipments Sample Calculations The concept of the audit and what it is intended to produce should be described in the introductory chapter. Moreover, it should also familiarize the reader with the organization energy systems . It should be kept in mind that not many reader will have the intimate knowledge of the details of the process acquired by the members of the audit team. Therefore, the introduction should include a listing of the major points of energy use within the process. This will lead into a discussion in the next chapter of the points of concentration of the audit. The general procedures and methodology carried out in the audit should be described following the introduction. The steps for obtaining the data should be outlined in brief and it is not necessary to include the detailed data here. For example, the measurements and methods used to conduct lighting tests should be Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 23
  30. 30. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) summarized, but the tabulations of actual test data should be included in the appendix. The following chapter should recap the distribution of energy use in the organization. Calculation procedures need not be covered at great length, although they might be described briefly; example calculations can instead be presented in an appendix. The primary objective of this chapter is to justify quantitatively the major points of interest. Energy distributions can be presented either in tabular form or graphically. The analysis of the energy conservation opportunities that are considered in the study should be cited in the following chapter. The summarized results of the energy savings calculations and economic evaluations for each item should be included too. The results can be presented primarily in tabular form. The final chapter of the report should contain the priorities and recommendations for implementation of energy conservation opportunities immediately or near future. The priority assigned to each item should be explained so that necessary corrective steps can be taken. A short payback period will not always be the sole criterion in setting priorities. Since this chapter is really the high point of the report, it is expected that much of the executive summary will be drawn from it, and hence a certain amount of redundancy is acceptable. Eventually the report should include appendixes that contain most of the detailed data, calculations, list of equipments used, and other material valuable for future reference but not essential to a general understanding of the audit and its results. If the report is too lengthy, these appendixes might be incorporated in a separate volume. The importance of good reporting should be recognized early in the planning of the audit, and a substantial amount of time and effort must be devoted to it. All too often, preparation of the report is viewed as a necessary evil by engineers who would really rather spend more time testing and calculating. A realistic assessment of the time and effort necessary to do a first class job of documentation can spell the difference between a report that produces results and on the gathers dust on a shelf. 4.4 Monitoring of Energy Audit Results The purpose of monitoring the energy audit results is to compare the effect of the applied saving measures (practical and actual aspect) with the set targets (theoretical and goals). The level of monitoring energy audits may range from no monitoring (just some random cases and sample projects) to actual monitoring of savings achieved. 24 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  31. 31. Chapter 5 Fundamental Audit Although Fundamental Audit is the cheapest, it can yield a preliminary estimate of savings potential and a list of low-cost savings opportunities. F undamental Audit is the least costly audit among the other level of auditing. The fundamental audit is a tour of the facility to visually inspect each system. Although this audit is the cheapest, it can yield a preliminary estimate of savings potential and a list of low-cost savings opportunities through improvements in operational and maintenance practices. The fundamental audit information may be used for a more detailed audit later if the preliminary savings potential appears to warrant further auditing activity. The main objective of this fundamental audit is to provide an idea of an energy project’s potential prior to spending money on a detailed study. This chapter describes in detail the practical aspect of the fundamental audit. 5.1 Audit Instrumentation In this level of auditing, sophisticated and expensive instrumentation is not a must or compulsory. If those tools are available, it would be an advantage and great help in the auditing. A simple and easy to use tool is essential to give an overview of the energy profile in the organization. Those tools are discussed below. 5.1.1 Measuring Electrical System Performance At this stage, the essential tool that will give you the information on the performance of electrical system in the organization is the electrical bill. With the electrical bills, you can identify and gather a handful of information regarding your electrical system performance throughout the whole year or a particular survey period. Besides, through frequent checking of electrical meter reading from the kWh meter on an interval period basis, a trend or ‘pattern’ of energy usage could be identified within the organization. The gathering of those information could be done more easily if proper tools are being used. However, for a start, gathering of electricity bills and frequent checking are essential to gather the required information for auditing purposes. Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 25
  32. 32. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) 5.1.2 Environmental Instruments The bulk of consumed energy is to enhance the organization comfort, in terms of lighting systems, HVAC, water heaters, etc. In order to gather those information, the environmental instruments are required, such as the sensor or logger for temperature, relative humidity, light, thermocouple, etc. Nevertheless, the main parameters that are sufficient for this level of audit are temperature, relative humidity and light density. With these information, the level of comfort and the usage ‘pattern’ can be concluded and linked with the electrical performance system. 5.1.3 Other Tools In order to have an overview of the whole energy system in the organization, the right person to be interviewed is the plant, facility or maintenance personnel. They are the most knowledgeable person in the organization to know the ‘health’ of the building energy system. Hence, an interview or survey form is required to gather information from them. This form should be customized according to individual needs and requirements. 5.2 Fundamental Audit Methodology As discussed earlier in Chapter 3, the Fundamental Audit is a scanning model. The main aims of a scanning are to point out areas, where energy saving possibilities exist (or may exist) and also to point out the most obvious saving measures which are normally ‘good housekeeping’ and other no-cost measures. The fundamental audits do not go deeply into the profitability of the areas pointed out or into the details of the suggested measures. Before any action can be taken, the areas pointed out need to be analyzed further. The reason why the fundamental audit report includes only a few suggestions that provide the client adequate information for implementation, is the very limited budget which does not allow thorough analysis, calculations or measurements. The time spent on a fundamental audit depends naturally on the site and its size. The time spent on the audit itself is not a criterion to specify whether the model is a fundamental audit or the other basic option, an analyzing audit. It is clear that auditing a small tertiary building is totally different challenge than auditing a large industrial site. Therefore the fundamental audit can be carried out in a few hours in a small site but it may as well take one week or more at the other end of the scale. The following is the suggested details procedure for the fundamental audit:- I. Define the Energy Audit properties (Refer to Figure 3.2) a. Definition and Identification of Properties • Prior to other activity, the properties of energy audit should be defined and identified so that there is a guideline and boundaries to this auditing. b. Define all assumption and clarify all the necessary information 26 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  33. 33. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R • T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) Any assumption and clarification should be defined in this steps so to avoid confusion, miscommunication and smooth process throughout the whole auditing. II. Measure, Monitor and Survey the site to determine current performance of energy a. Interview with key facility personnel • A meeting with the key facility personnel to kick off the project. The purpose is to establish the operating characteristics of the facility, energy system specifications, operating and maintenance preliminary areas of invitation, unusual operating constraints, anticipated future plant expansions or changes in product mix, and other concerns related to facility operations. b. A brief review of facility utility bills and other operating data (if available) for the 12 past months to 36 months (if available) • Available facility documentation are reviewed with facility representatives. These documentations should include all available architectural and engineering plans, facility operation and maintenance procedures and logs, and utility bills for the previous three years if applicable. c. Facility tour with the audit instrumentation • A tour of facility is arranged to observe the various operations first hand, focusing on the major energy consuming systems including the architectural, lighting and power, mechanical and process energy systems. d. Get the essential data from the site III. Analyze and Evaluate the Energy Performance a. Compare the energy usage data with the utility bills through a simple calculation as shown in Section 5.4.1. • Simple calculation is essential for this level. A detail analysis on energy usage should be covered in next level of auditing. b. Study the pattern of the room temperature in days or weeks through logger, and the usage of energy consumption for a year from the utility bills. See example in Section 5.4.2. • At this level, the utility analysis is a brief review of energy bills from the previous 12 to 36 months. This should include all purchased energy, including electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and purchased steam, as well as any energy generated on site. Billing data reviewed includes energy usage, energy demand and utility rate structure. Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 27
  34. 34. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) IV. Improve energy performance by identifying the possibilities steps in energy saving a. Simple corrective measures are briefly described. Refer to Section 5.4.3. • Some practical corrective measures which does not required huge investment could be proposed at this stage. Those corrective measure can be as simple as creating awareness among the staffs and personnel in the organization on energy savings. b. Brief recommendation on the next level of energy audit. • The need of next level of auditing depending on the current finding. It also include which level of auditing and briefly describe the next level auditing properties; i.e. the goal & objective, the scope, the details of the survey and the duration & cost. V. Control future process performance by proper documentation in reporting and continuous monitoring a. A brief reporting is sufficient for this stage. • The results of the findings and recommendations are summarized in a final report. It incorporates a summary of all the activities and effort performed throughout the project with specific conclusions and recommendations. This report can also be proposed and presented to the management on the fate of the energy audit in the organization. b. This report should contain at least: i. A summary of the audit ii. A check-list of tools used iii. Simple calculation from Section II iv. Brief recommendation from Section III. FIGURE 5.1 : Five Distinct DMAIC Steps of Fundamental Energy Audit Procedure 28 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  35. 35. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) The flow diagram for the above steps are shown in Figure 5.2. Starts a. Definition and Identification of Properties b. Define all Assumptions and Clarification Define the Energy Audit Properties (Refer to Fig. 3.2) Measure, Monitor and Survey the site No a. b. Compare the energy usage data with the utility bills Study the pattern of the room temperature and the usage of energy consumption Enough Data for analysis? a. Interview with key facility personnel a. A brief review of facility utility bills and other operating data (if available) for the 12 past months to 36 months (if available) b. Facility tour with the audit instrumentation c. Get the essential data from the site Reporting Yes Reporting Analyze and Evaluate the Energy Consumption a. b. Improve by Identifying the possibilities of Energy Saving Simple corrective measures are briefly described. Brief recommendation on the next level of energy audit. Reporting Required Information Control the Audit A brief reporting is sufficient for this stage. Quality by reporting FIGURE 5.2 : Steps Flow Diagram for Fundamental Audit Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 29
  36. 36. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) 5.3 Recommended Analysis and Practices This section will demonstrates the recommended analysis, simple calculation and suggested corrective measure for this level. 5.3.1 Calculating Load Use Generally, the electric bill varies from month to month. The size of the electric bill is determined by two things: Watts, which is the amount of electricity that each load uses, and Hours, or the length of time each load are being used The combination of watts and hours - or kilowatt-hours (kWh) - is use to calculate the bill for each month. So saving on the bill is as simple as reducing either the wattage or the time of use an appliance. To determine electric usage of your loads, follow these steps: 1. Find the wattage of the load. 2. Estimate hours of use per month. 3. Calculate the approximate number of kilowatt-hours each load uses by applying this formula: Watts × Hours of Operation = kWh 1000 Watts Example: You use a 1500-watt oven about 10 hours a month. Here’s how you would calculate electric usage: 1500 Watts ×10 hours per month = 15kWh 1000 Watts 5.3.1.1 Calculating cost To calculate the annual cost to run an load by multiplying the kWh per year by the rate per kWh consumed. For example: Exhaust fan: 200 Watts x 4 Hours used per day x 120 days used per year = 96 kWh x 8.5* cents/kWh =$8.16 per year. * 8.5 cents is the rate we used for this example. Your actual rate is listed on your statement. 30 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  37. 37. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) 5.3.2 Examples of Analysis Example 1: Pattern analysis of the room temperature with HOBO H8 Logger. Refer to Figure 5.3 for recorded data of room temperature for a period of about 24 hours. FIGURE 5.3 : Historical Data for Room Temperature From the diagram shown above, it can be concluded that during the period from 1900 hours on 18 July 2001 till 0700 hours on 19 July 2001, the air-conditioner has been switched off. The rise of temperature from 1900 hours till about 0200 hours the next day demonstrates that the room doors and windows are tightly closed. When the air-conditioner is in operation, the energy consumption should increased, especially when it started to operate at about 0700 hours on 19 July 2001. Hence, the energy consumed should be quite similar ‘pattern’ as the temperature of the room. Example 2: Pattern analysis of the room relative humidity with HOBO H8 Logger. Refer to Figure 5.4 for recorded data of room relative humidity for a period of about 24 hours. As compare with Figure 5.3, the relative humidity varies according to the room temperature. When the temperature is low, the relative humidity is relatively low. Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 31
  38. 38. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) FIGURE 5.4 : Historical Data for Room Relative Humidity Example 3: Pattern analysis of the room lighting with HOBO H8 Logger. Refer to Figure 5.5 for recorded data of room lighting for a period of about 24 hours. FIGURE 5.5 : Historical Data for Room Lighting The historical data demonstrates a clear information regarding the light density in terms of lumens per square feet (lum/sqf). Whether the light is switch on or off can also determine through the diagram. The density for this room varies from 515 lum/sqf. A recommended corrective measure regarding light density will be discussed in the following section. 32 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  39. 39. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) 5.4 Recommended Corrective Measure by Energy Market Authority, Singapore 5.4.1 Lighting Check Purpose 1. Singapore Standard Code of Practice for Artificial Lighting in Buildings CP38 – 1999. Ensure that the lighting levels are within the recommended illumination levels in terms of glare & color rendition for the required tasks. 2. Use of Most Efficient Lamp for Appropriate Task/Requirement Use lamps with high luminous efficiency i.e. lumens/Watt as this saves electricity. For example replacing incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps can reduce electricity consumption by 75% without any reduction in illumination levels. Also when selecting lamps, other factors such as starting characteristics, color rendition, lifespan and location should be considered. 3. Fluorescent Tube Ballasts Consider replacing the standard conventional ballast (12W loss) with electronic ballast (± 2W loss). The use of electronic ballast allows for substantial energy savings in the lighting system. Select those electronic ballasts that comply with the Singapore Standard 380: Part 1: 1996 or the International Standards IEC 928 and 929. 4. Provision of Separate Switches for Peripheral Lighting A flexible lighting system, which makes use of natural lighting for the peripherals of the room, should be considered so that these peripheral lights can be switched off when not needed. 5. Lamp Fixtures or Luminaries Reduce your lighting electricity consumption by as much as 50% without any reduction in illumination levels by using the optical lamp luminaries. Optical lamp luminaries made out of aluminum, silver or multiple dielectric coatings have improved light distribution characteristics. These efficient luminaries reduce discomfort, glare and reflections. Also clean the lights and fixtures regularly. For best results, dust at least 4 times a year. 6. Integration of Lighting System With AirConditioning System In open-plan offices, the air-conditioning and lighting systems can be combined in such a way that the return air is extracted through the lighting luminaries. This measure ensures that lesser heat will be directed from the lights into the room. 7. Use of Light Colors for Walls, Floors, and Ceilings The higher surface reflectance values of light colors will help to make the most of any existing lighting system. 8. Switch off Lights When Not in Use Leaving a twin-fluorescent tube fitting switched on in an empty office overnight wastes enough energy to heat water for 1,000 cups of coffee. Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 33
  40. 40. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) 5.4.2 Air-Conditioner Check Purpose 1. Temperature and Humidity Settings Ensure human comfort – not too cold or hot. The recommended temperature setting is between 23oC and 25oC while the relative humidity should be equal to or less than 75% 2. Chilled Water Pipes and Air Ducts Ensure that the insulation for the chilled water pipes and ducting system is maintained in good condition. This helps to prevent heat gain from the surroundings. 3. Chiller Condenser Tubes The condition of the condenser tubes affects the energy efficiency of the chiller. Fouling in condenser tubes, in the form of slime and scales, increases with time and reduces the heat transfer capacity of the condenser tubes. Mechanical cleaning should be carried out at least once every 6 months. 4. Cooling Towers Ensure that the cooling towers are clean to allow for maximum heat transfer so that the temperature of the water returning to the condenser is less than or equal to ambient temperature. 5. Air-handling Unit Fan Speed The fan motor is initially designed and installed to meet the maximum heat load of the room. However, during normal operation, the fan will be operating at a level well below the maximum rated level. Explore the possibility of installing devices such as frequency converters to vary the fan speed thereby reducing the energy consumed by the fan motor. By installing frequency converters, as much as 15% of the fan energy consumption can be saved. 6. Air Filter Condition Maintain the filter in a clean condition by periodically removing dirt and solid particles that have settled on the cooling coils. This will improve the heat transfer between air and chilled water thereby reducing energy consumption. 7. Chilled Water Leaving Temperature Ensure high chiller energy efficiency by maintaining a chilled water leaving temperature at or above 7oC. As a rule of thumb, the efficiency of a centrifugal chiller increases by about 2¼ % for every 1oC rise in the chilled water leaving temperature. 34 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  41. 41. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) 5.4.3 Air-Compressor Check Purpose 1. Load Characteristics Maximize the on-load time of the compressor. It is normal for most air-compressor motors to use as much as 1/3 of the rated power during off-load condition. 2. Leaks in the Carry out regular leak detection checks at pipe and valve joints. Energy wastage is substantial in a leaking compressed air Tubes/Air Pipes distribution system. Air leaks cause air-compressors to overwork and hence use more energy. Also use proper air hose together with quality hose clamps and ensure that the blowguns used are standardized. 3. Delivery Setting Pressure Ensure that the delivery pressure is set to suit the compressed air requirement. Typically by reducing from 7 to 6 bars, 8% of the compressor energy can be saved. Pressure settings for control valves should be between 2 bars and 3 bars while that for pneumatic tools at about 5.5 bars. 4. Location of Inlet Ensure that the inlet air is as cool as the ambient air. For every Air Duct 4oC reduction in inlet air temperature a 1% savings in energy is possible. As air in Singapore is humid, air dryers are normally an essential item. Air at 30oC, 80% RH contains as much as 25 ml of water for every 1000 liters of air. 5. Compressed Distribution Pipework Air Make sure that the air velocity in the air distribution pipework is between 6 m/s and 10 m/s to ensure that there will be no excessive pressure drops within the distribution system. 6. Drainage of Carry- Arrange the air distribution pipework to slope downwards to Over Water in the several suitably located draining points, which are fitted with Distribution automatic traps. A well-drained system will minimize water carryPipework over to tools and processes. Excessive water causes corrosion to tools and damage to the finished products. 7. Installation of After- The after-cooler separator removes oil and water from the air that Cooler Separator has been condensed out by the after-cooler. Removal of moisture helps prevent equipment and product damage. 8. Provision of High Quality air for instrumentation is expensive to produce and is not Quality Air Only required for all areas of compressed air use. If only a small Where Needed demand for instrument air is required, consider fitting a small capacity dryer downstream to supply this required quantity of air only. Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 35
  42. 42. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R 5.4.4 Boiler Check T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) Purpose 1. Steam Pressure Setting For efficient operation, the boiler should not be allowed to operate below the minimum pressure setting recommended by manufacturer. 2. Insulation of the Steam Piping. Minimize heat and steam losses from pipes by having proper and good insulation. Heat loss from insulated pipes should not exceed 200 W/m2. 3. Flue Gas Composition At Boiler Stack (using a CO2 and O2 analyzer) Ensure complete combustion at all times with a margin of excess air to suit the particular burner, boiler and fuel. Ensure that incoming air flow rate is correctly maintained because a high air flow rate increases the heat loss to the flue gas. Low air flow rate will mean that a proportion of fuel remains unburned. For oil-fired boilers: Excess air is about 15%-25% Flue gas: CO2 is about 13%-14% For gas-fired boilers: Excess air is about 10%-20% Flue gas: O2 is about 3%-5% CO2 is about 9%-10% 4. Flue Gas Temperature at Stack The stack temperature should be between 170oC and 200oC. At temperatures below this range acid formation results thus leading to gradual corrosion of the exhaust stack, while at temperatures above this range unnecessary fuel wastage results. 5. Heat Recovery from Heat recovery enables savings in boiler fuel oil. As a rule of Flue Gas thumb, for every 5.6oC rise in boiler feedwater temperature there is savings of 1% in boiler fuel oil. Heat transfer from flue gas to boiler feedwater can be effected using an economizer. 6. Condensate Water Tank is Covered and Insulated Ensure minimal heat loss from the sides of the tank. Heat loss should not exceed 200W/m2 from the side surfaces of the condensate water tank. 7. Condensate Pipe and Boiler Surface Insulation Ensure minimum heat loss from the pipe surfaces. Heat loss from boiler surfaces should be less than 300 W/m2. 36 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  43. 43. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) 8. Whether Condensate Recovery is possible (if condensate is not contaminated) Ensure maximum condensate recovery – this will reduce the amount of feedwater intake and hence reduce the fuel required to achieve the desired steam pressure and temperature. Energy savings of about 25%-30% are possible. 9. Sufficient blowdowns are carried out. Blowdown is required to control the total dissolved solids and to discharge sludge that has been accumulated at the bottom of the boiler. However the number of blowdowns should be kept to a minimum to reduce the amount of steam loss. 5.5 An Example of Energy Audit We believe any energy audit project shall start small in order to build our confidence. In this section, we have designed a small energy audit project which can help to relate how different temperature setting of a split core unit air-con can potentially save a small amount of energy. The following procedure will guide you through the small project:a) Select an air conditioned room where the air-con or lighting may not need to be turn on for the entire day. Example: Meeting Room. b) Locate the power cable that supply to the air-con unit in the room. Use an analogue current sensor and logger to start logging the current consumption of the air-con unit. Only one of the phase need to be logged. We can estimate the total consumption by multiplying the value by three. c) Locate a place in the room free from draught to place the temperature / light logger. Leave the logger on for a week. d) After one week, retrieve the temperature, light and current consumption data from the logger. e) Analyze the data to identified the following: i) Is there a time when the light is off, but the air-con is still on ? ii) Is there a time when the temperature drop below 20°C ? iii) Note down the current consumption correspond to different temperature. f) By knowing the answers to the above simple questions, steps can be taken to cut down the ON time of the air-con. Some of the steps may be: i) Putting sign at the exit, reminding the last person to turn off the aircon when meeting is finish. Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 37
  44. 44. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) ii) Check the thermostat periodically to ensure temperature setting not being set at too low a temperature. iii) Periodically check if the current consumption goes up for the same temperature. This may indicate maintenance is required on the air-con, such as cleaning the air filter to bring the air-con back to its optimum condition. g) After implementing the above energy conservation program, check to see what amount of energy has been saved by continuous monitoring. 5.6 Conclusion Fundamental energy audit give auditor the tools to meet the basic and overview of energy ‘health’ in the organization. This fundamental audit directly addresses a specific area and it is the cheapest and simplest audit among the other audit level. The proposed steps can be expended or modified according to the auditor requirement. However, the procedure as discussed is the essential steps to conduct the first level of auditing. Those tools which are used at this level is temporary, i.e. it is not permanently installed at the site. The subsequent level of auditing will dealt with more in-dept and detail analysis with the aid of semi-permanent tools. Those tools are installed for a period of time to gather more detail information. 38 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  45. 45. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) References & Bibliography [1] Save-Project Final Report. 1999. “The Guidebook for Energy Audits, Programme Schemes and Administrative Procedures”. EU. 2001. “What is a Manufacturing and [2] Optimum Utility Systems. Processing Plant ‘Energy Audit’?”. U.S. [3] EMAS Guidebook. 1999. “Integrating Energy- and Environmental Management”. U.S. [4] Energy Audit Symposium. 1980. “Energy Auditing”. USA: The Fairmont Press, Inc. [5] Regional Energy Development Programme (RAS/84/001) . 1987. “Training Manual on Energy Management (RAS/84/001/A2/1987)”. United Nations Development Programme and Economic and Social Commission For Asia and the Pacific [6] Witte, Larry C., Schmidt, Philip S., and Brown, David R.. 1988. “Industrial Energy Management and Utilization”. USA: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. [7] Thumann, Albert. 1995. “Handbook of Energy Audits”. Fourth Edition. USA: The Fairmont Press, Inc. [8] GARD Analytics, Inc. 2001 “Energy, Economic and Environmental Research”. US [9] California Energy Commission. 2000. “ENERGY AUDITOR: To Identify Energy Efficiency Projects”: US [10] Wildi, Theodore. 2000. Fourth Edition “Electrical Machines, Drives, and Power Systems”. US: Prentice Hall International, Inc. [11]Pyzdek, Thomas. 2000. “The Six Sigma Revolution”. Better Management.com [12]Simon, Kerri. 2000. “DMAIC Versus DMADV”. ISixSigma LLC. Copyright Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 39
  46. 46. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) Index A L advanced, 7, 8 levels, 5, 10, 17, 30 air light, 13, 23, 29, 30 quality, 3, 13, 15, 16, 17, 28, 30, 31, 32, logger, 17, 23, 24, 37 33, 37 Analyze, 4, 11, 24 M audit, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, management, i, 2, 3, 10, 18, 25 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, Measure, 4, 11, 23, 30 25, 34, 37 measurements, 7, 8, 10, 12, 17, 20, 23 B method, 2, 4 basic, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 23, 34 N models, 4, 5, 6 brief, 6, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25 network, 13 C comprehensive, 2, 4, 6, 18, 19 O consumption, 1, 2, 4, 7, 12, 13, 24, 28, 30, objective, 2, 5, 10, 20, 22, 25 31 Control, 4, 11, 25 P Core, 4, 5 practical, 1, 21, 22, 24 cost, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 22, preliminary, 6, 22, 23 23, 25, 27 pressure, 17, 32, 33, 34 D principle, 1 density, 13, 23, 29 details, 2, 5, 11, 20, 23, 25 Q duration, 2, 5, 6, 25 quality, i, 3, 4, 10, 13, 17, 18, 32 E R economical, 1 relative, 13, 15, 23, 28, 31, 37 electricity, 22, 24, 27, 30 report, 2, 18, 19, 20, 23, 25 element, 1, 4 S procedure, 2, 10, 11, 23, 34 energy, i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, saving, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 21, 23, 27 25, 28, 30, 31, 32, 34, 37 scope, 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 25 environmental, 3, 13, 23 sensors, 14, 15, 17 F survey, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 22, 23, 25 facility, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 22, 23, 24, 37 T fundamental, 6, 7, 8, 22, 23, 34 systems, 2, 7, 8, 20, 23, 24, 30 G temperature, 13, 14, 16, 17, 23, 24, 28, general, 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 20 thermocouple, 16, 17 goal, 2, 5, 10, 25 tool, 22 H transducer, 17 humidity, 13, 15, 23, 28, 31, 37 I 31, 32, 33, 34, 37 U utility, 2, 7, 8, 24, 37 Improve, 4, 11, 24 W instrumentation, 6, 14, 22, 24, 32, 37 water, 2, 17, 30, 31, 32, 33 intermediate, 7 40 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  47. 47. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) Energy Glossary adjustable speed drive (ASD) - An electronic device that controls the rotational speed of a piece of motor-driven equipment (e.g., a compressor, fan, or pump). Speed control is obtained by adjusting the frequency of the voltage applied to the motor. This approach usually saves energy for variable-load applications. anaerobic digestion - A decomposition process by which organic matter is decomposed by anaerobic bacteria. The process generates a product called "biogas" that is primarily composed of methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. ASHRAE - Acronym for American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers. ballast - A device that provides starting voltage and limits the current during normal operation for electrical discharge lamps such as fluorescent lamps. bin method - A method of predicting heating and/or cooling loads by doing load calculation at different outdoor temperatures and then multiplying the result by the number of hours of occurrence of each temperature. biogas - A product of decomposing organic matter such as manure or food processing wastes using anaerobic bacteria. Biogas is primarily composed of methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. blowdown - The removal of water from an evaporative system (e.g., cooling tower or boiler) to reduce mineral concentration that can cause scaling boiler horsepower - A rate of steam production equal to the evaporation of 34.5 pounds of water per hour at a temperature of 212°F into dry steam at 212°F. One boiler horsepower is equal to 33,475 Btu per hour of steam production. British thermal unit (Btu) - A unit of heat energy approximately equal to the quantity of heat required to raise one pound of water by 1°F. CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) - A family of chemicals used as refrigerants that is being tightly regulated and phased out of production due to stratospheric ozone depletion potential. Examples: R-11, R-12, R-113, R-114, R-115. coefficient of performance (COP) - A measure of refrigeration efficiency. The ratio of the rate of heat removed (cooling effect) to the rate of heat input required, expressed in the same units. cogeneration - The generation of electricity and the concurrent use of rejected thermal energy as an auxiliary energy source (e.g., for heating or absorption cooling). declining block rate - An electric supply rate structure in which the unit price of electricity decreases as the amount of electricity used increases. Savings for energy Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 41
  48. 48. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) conservation occurs at the lowest (or "incremental" or "marginal") rate, not the average rate. demand-side management (DSM) - The process of managing the consumption of electrical energy, generally to minimize demand and costs. energy conservation measure (ECM) - An energy audit recommendation. energy conservation opportunity (ECO) - An energy audit recommendation energy performance contract (EPC) - A way to finance and implement a capital improvement project by using utility cost savings to cover project costs. energy services company (ESCO) - A company that offers to reduce a client's utility costs, often with the cost savings being split with the client through an energy performance contract (EPC) or a shared-savings agreement. geothermal heat pump - A heat pump that uses the ground, ground water, or pond water as a heat source or heat sink, rather than using outside air. Ground or water temperatures are more stable and are warmer in winter and cooler in summer than air temperatures. Geothermal heat pumps can operate more efficiently than other types of heat pumps. hardness - The amount of dissolved calcium salts and/or magnesium present in water. Hardness is measured in units of parts per million (ppm) or grains per gallon (gpg). [gpg x 17.1 = ppm] Poor water treatment can result in excessive scale that provides excessive resistance to heat transfer and thus inefficiency and higher costs. heat pipe - A device that transfers heat by the evaporation and condensation of an internal fluid. heat recovery ventilator - A device that captures heat from exhaust air from a building and transfers it to the fresh air entering the building to preheat the air and thus reduce energy consumption and cost. horsepower (hp) - (Electrical/mechanical horsepower, not boiler horsepower.) A shaft energy output rate of 550 foot-pounds per second, usually specified for electric motors as the maximum output. One electrical hp is equal to 0.7457 kW or 2,545 Btu/hour. The actual kW required will be higher due to motor inefficiency. HVAC systems - Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. Common systems capable of providing tremendous amounts of comfort and tremendous amounts of waste, sometimes simultaneously. interruptible service - Utility service (electric or natural gas) supplied under agreements that allow the supplier to curtail or stop service at times in return for a discounted rate at other times. kilowatt (kW) - A unit of electric power or capacity equal to 1,000 watts. “Demand” or “capacity” charges for electricity are usually based on the peak kW 42 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  49. 49. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) occurring during the billing period, often only as measured during times defined as “on peak” hours. kilowatt-hour (kWh) - A unit of electric energy consumption equal to that consumed in using a power level of one kilowatt (1,000 watts) for a duration of one hour. Example: Illuminating ten 100-watt bulbs for one hour consumes 1 kWh. load factor - The average percentage of capacity of a utility that is used over a given period of time such as a month or year. Deregulated electricity sellers prefer clients with high load factors (i.e., stable and predictable loads) and sometimes offer them preferred rates. low-E coating (for windows) - A coating applied to the surface of window glazing to reduce heat transfer through the glazing by reducing the emissivity. luminaire - A complete lighting unit consisting of lamp(s), lamp protector(s), ballast(s), and components to direct and control the light. marginal rate - The rate that has to be paid for the last increment of service. For example, with a declining block electric rate, the marginal rate is the rate in the last rate block used and is lower than the average rate. Savings from reducing consumption will occur at the marginal rate, not the average rate. MCF - One thousand cubic feet of natural gas, having an energy value of approximately one million Btu. measurement and verification (M&V) - A process capable of keeping an energy performance contract fair to all parties. occupancy sensor - A control device that senses the presence of a person in a given space and is commonly used to control lighting. Occupancy sensors are sometimes used to control heating, ventilation, and air conditioning too. outside air - Fresh air taken from outside that has not previously circulated through the HVAC system. Outside air often requires substantial heating and air conditioning and should be carefully controlled. power - The time rate of doing work or consuming energy, usually measured in Btu/hour, horsepower, or kW. Power use is often billed in addition to energy use (e.g., an electric bill will have both kW and kWh charges). power factor - The ratio of power actually being used in an electric circuit, expressed in kW, to the power that is apparently being drawn from the power source, expressed in kilovolt-amperes (kVA). In other words, the ratio of "active" or "real" power (that actually turns the motor shaft) to "apparent power." The apparent power includes "reactive power" strictly used to develop the magnetic field. Reactive power creates no useful work, results when current is not in phase with voltage, and can be corrected using capacitors or other devices. Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 43
  50. 50. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) R-value - A measure of thermal resistance used to compare insulating values. The higher the R-value number of a material, the better its insulating properties and the slower the heat flows through it. reactive power - Electrical power strictly used to develop magnetic field. Reactive power is never converted to useful power such as shaft power, but it often gets billed anyway. Power factor correction can reduce reactive power costs. See "power factor." therm - 100,000 Btu. A common unit for quantifying the energy content of natural gas delivery. time-of-use (TOU) rate - Pricing of electricity based on several time blocks per 24hour period (e.g., on-peak, mid-peak, off-peak, etc.) and on seasons of the year (e.g., summer and winter). ton of refrigeration (tonR) - 12,000 Btu/hour of cooling capacity. One ton of capacity is equal to the heat required to melt 2,000 pounds of ice in 24 hours. U-factor or U-value - A measure of how well heat is transferred by a window, thus affecting heating and air conditioning costs. U-factor is the inverse of R-value. The lower the U-factor, the better the window will retain heat on a cold day or cooling on a hot day. U-factors may vary tremendously from one window product to another. variable speed drive (VSD) - An electronic device that controls the rotational speed of a piece of motor-driven equipment (e.g., a blower, compressor, fan, or pump). Speed control is obtained by adjusting the frequency of the voltage applied to the motor. This approach usually saves energy for variable-load applications. VAV system (variable air volume system) - An HVAC system serving multiple zones that controls the temperature in each zone by controlling the amount of heated or cooled air supplied to the zone. 44 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  51. 51. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) Conversion Formulae To Convert Multiply By Inches to cm 2.5400 Cm to inches 0.3937 Feet to meters 0.3048 Meters to feet 3.2810 Yards to meters 0.9144 Meters to yards 1.0940 Miles to km 1.6090 Sq ins to sq cm 6.4520 Sq cm to sq ins 0.1550 Sq meters to sq feet 10.7600 Sq feet to sq meters 0.0929 Sq yards to sq meters 0.8361 Sq meters to sq yards 1.1960 Sq miles to sq miles 0.3861 Acres to hectares 0.4047 Hectares to acres 2.4710 Cu ins to cu cum 16.3900 Cu cm to cu ins 0.0610 Cu feet to cu meters 0.0283 Cu meters to cu feet 35.3100 Cu yards to cu meters 0.7646 Cu meters to cu yards 1.3080 Cu inches to liters 0.0163 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 45
  52. 52. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G Liters to cu inches - L E V E L 1 ( E A 1 ) 61.0300 Gallons to liters 4.5460 Liters to gallons 0.2200 Grains to grams 0.0648 Grams to grains 15.4300 Ounces to grams 28.3500 Grams to ounces 0.0352 Pounds to grams 453.6000 Grams to pounds 0.0022 Pounds to kilograms 0.4536 Kilograms to pounds 2.2050 Tons to kilograms 1016.0000 Kilograms to tons 0.0009 Pascal to Newton/m2 1 Inch water to Pascal 249 Millimeter water to Pascal 9.8 Psi to kpa 6.89 Psi to inch water 27.7 Psi to mm water 703.3 Bar to psi Bar to kpa 14.51 100 o C to oF 9/5 Btu/hr to kCal/hr 0.2519 Btu/hr to watts 0.2931 Watts to Btu/hr 46 3413 Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd
  53. 53. E N E R G Y A U D I T O R T R A I N I N G - L E V E L KCal/hr to btu/hr Horsepower to watt Copyright © 2001 Precicon Automation (S) Pte Ltd 1 ( E A 1 ) 3.97 746 47

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