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Liberalism (Part 1)
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Liberalism (Part 1)

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Slideshow prepared for the first part of a series of lectures on Liberalism for PS 240 Introduction to Political Theory (Fall 2007) at the University of Kentucky. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

Slideshow prepared for the first part of a series of lectures on Liberalism for PS 240 Introduction to Political Theory (Fall 2007) at the University of Kentucky. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

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Transcript

  • 1. Liberalism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  • 2. The American Political Spectrum is small…
  • 3.  
  • 4. The startling Western transformation of 1500-1700
  • 5. Organic vs. Mechanistic
  • 6. Organic Worldview
  • 7. First Nature
  • 8. Second Nature
  • 9. The world is a living world…
  • 10. Unrestrained growth is an aberration, undesired
  • 11. Mechanistic Worldview
  • 12. The $$$ World
  • 13. The world is a “dead” world…
  • 14. Lack of continuous growth = death
  • 15. The Organic Worldview
  • 16. Ruach
  • 17.  
  • 18. Gaia
  • 19. The rise of capitalism
  • 20. Logical Positivism Leads to the Mechanistic Worldview
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24. Cogito Ergo Sum
  • 25.  
  • 26. Mechanistic Philosophy
  • 27.  
  • 28. Logical Positivism
  • 29. Is science objective? Economics?
  • 30.  
  • 31. The Liberal concept of agency is based on the theory of possessive individualism
  • 32. Possessive Individualism
    • What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others.
    • Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest.
    • The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society .
    • Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor.
    • Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations.
    • Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others.
    • Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves.
    (C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  • 33. Possessive Individualism
    • What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others.
    • Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest.
    • The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society .
    • Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor.
    • Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations.
    • Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others.
    • Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves.
    (C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  • 34. Possessive Individualism
    • What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others.
    • Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest.
    • The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society .
    • Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor.
    • Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations.
    • Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others.
    • Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves.
    (C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  • 35. Possessive Individualism
    • What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others.
    • Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest.
    • The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society .
    • Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor.
    • Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations.
    • Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others.
    • Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves.
    (C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  • 36. Possessive Individualism
    • What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others.
    • Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest.
    • The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society .
    • Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor.
    • Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations.
    • Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others.
    • Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves.
    (C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  • 37. Possessive Individualism
    • What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others.
    • Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest.
    • The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society .
    • Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor.
    • Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations.
    • Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others.
    • Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves.
    (C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  • 38. Possessive Individualism
    • What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others.
    • Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest.
    • The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society .
    • Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor.
    • Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations.
    • Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others.
    • Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves.
    (C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  • 39. Liberal Philosophy
  • 40. Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  • 41. Equality
  • 42. Equality of Opportunity vs. Equality of Outcome
  • 43. Liberty
  • 44. Individuality
  • 45. Rationality
  • 46. Liberal Society
  • 47. wars of religion and the rise of modern science in the 16th and 17th centuries
  • 48. Feudalism Capitalism
  • 49. Why a free-market economy is important…
  • 50. The Pursuit of “the Good”
  • 51. this does not mean that all beliefs and ways of life are treated as being equal
  • 52. we have the right to find out the worth (or worthlessness) of our opinions for ourselves.
  • 53. A way of life that cannot withstand the light of public scrutiny is not worth saving in the first place.
  • 54. Individuals must be allowed to make mistakes so they can learn from them.
  • 55. Liberal Politics
  • 56. strict distinction between the state and civil society
  • 57. ambivalence about the benefits of democracy
  • 58. Government is BAD! Government is GREAT!
  • 59. Neoclassical Liberals/ Social Darwinists vs. Welfare Liberals
  • 60. The Liberal View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Liberalism”) OBSTACLE: Laws, customs, or conditions that block individual choice (or pursuit of “the good”) AGENT: The “Atomistic” Individual GOAL: To live as one chooses, pursue one’s own idea of “the good.”
  • 61.  
  • 62. The Principle of Utility Maximization
  • 63. Government’s job is to ameliorate the effects of utility maximization which bring harm to others
  • 64. 2 general conclusions about government
  • 65. Government can best promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number by leaving people alone .
  • 66. Government is not likely to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number if it is only open to a small number.
  • 67.  
  • 68. Defend and Extend individual liberty
  • 69.  
  • 70. Harm Principle Every sane adult should be free to do whatever he or she wants as long as his or her actions do not harm, or threaten to harm, others.
  • 71.  
  • 72. Natural Rights
  • 73. Utility Society, as a whole, will benefit if people are allowed to think and act freely.
  • 74. Representative democracy only for the educated, wealthy?
  • 75. Neoclassical liberalism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  • 76. Neoclassical liberalism
  • 77. Social Darwinism
  • 78.  
  • 79.  
  • 80.  
  • 81. Welfare Liberalism
  • 82. Government as a POSITIVE force
  • 83.  
  • 84. Negative VS. Positive Freedom
  • 85. Socialism VS. Welfare Liberalism