Public Lecture Slides (2.28.2017) Gilles Campagnolo: Liberalism and Chinese Economic Development
Liberalism and Chinese Economic
Full research professor, National Center for Scientific
Research, Aix-Marseilles School of Economics, FRANCE
Global Coordinator of the European Union network LIBEAC
February 28, 2017 – Temple University, Tokyo
‘China did have the courage to dwelve into the ocean of world-
markets’ (in substance) : Xi Jinping, Davos Forum, 01/17/2017
• ‘Un discours
impressionnant, et un
discours très stratégique,
vibrant plaidoyer pour une
politique de portes
ouvertes, pour le dialogue
direct et contre le
newspaper Le Monde on
January 18: Ursula von der
Leyen, Defence Minister of
• ‘It is however rather
strange to have to ask a
CP’s leader to come and
help on free-trade’7
(in substance) ironically
remarked Carl Bildt,
former Prime Minister of
• Now, is it that strange?
Campagnolo G., Liberalism and
Chinese Economic Development:
Perspectives from Europe and Asia
London & NYC: Routledge, May 2016
See also Campagnolo G. ‘Three Influent Western
Philosophers in the Break-Up Period in China:
Eucken, Bergson and Dewey in China’, in Ma
Ying and H.-M. Trautwein (eds.), Thoughts on
Economic Development in China, London &
NYC: Routledge, 2012, pp. 101-136.
A collective publication Liberalism and Chinese
Economic Development: Perspectives from Europe
• Is economic pressure any longer foreign? How to
confront signs of crisis?
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Int. & Part I)
Authors from Europe and Asia
1. General Introduction. In Search of the meaning of
Liberalism in a China confronting crisis (Gilles
Part I. History of Thought: Contributions
to the reception and
adoption/adaption of Western thought
2. The Reception Of Kant in China (Bo Xu)
3. Yan Fu and Kaiping Mines: the Meaning of Economic Liberalism
in Early Modern China. (Qunyi Liu)
4. Liberal Economic Thought in Republican China (Olga Borokh)
5. Modernization Theory, Chinese Modernization, and Social Ethics
Table of Contents (Part II)
Part II. Liberalization and
6. The Essence of Individuality in Kitarō Nishida’s works: A
Contribution from Eastern Asia to a Transcultural Under-
standing of the Meaning of Individualism (A. Altobrando)
7. Reject of Narcissism and Social Essentialism through the
Anthropology of Masao Maruyama (Masataka Muramatsu)
8. Dual Individualization in East Asia: Individualization in the
Society and in the Family (Sang-Jin Han and Young-Hee
9. Intensive Secularization of Engaged Buddhism to Heal
Isolated People in East Asia: Active Listening by Monks in
liberalized Societies of Eastern Asia (Yoshihide Sakurai)
Table of Contents (Part III)
Part III. Liberalism, universalims and
10. Self-Determination: What Liberalism is it? (Zhao Lizhi)
11. Slaughter’s Liberal Theory of International Law:
Comments from a Chinese Perspective. (Guimei Bai)
12. Liberalization of Russian foreign economic relations in
North-Eastern Asia: a viewpoint on Chinese and
Japanese business (Igor Botoev and Olga Tugulova)
13. Talking Politics in China: Media and ‘Social
Management’ in a China facing fast-pace Modernization
NYC & London, Routledge, May 2016
The book originates in a project:
rationale of the project
The position newly taken by China at international level implies to revise our
assessment of liberalism within East Asian modernization, at all three
economic, political and social levels. Changes in the Western world bear
the same consequence of reassessing the situation.
Focus on economic development, with a comparative analysis of the context
in which it is displayed. There are indeed different ways to interpret
Japanese, Korean and Chinese modernization: does ‘liberalization’ mean
“Westernization”, or are elements already embedded in Asian culture?
‘Cultural economics’ and comparative ‘socio-economics’ can be put forth,
while political discrepancies with the Western model point to how the rule
of law may be effectively implemented in local business.
For instance, the influence of the legal frame on mid- and long-term trade is
of interest not only to law and economics but also to the history of
economic thought. What about notions adopted/adapted from Europe?
Funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under grant
agreement n°PIRSES-GA-2012-317767 7
EU-East Asia LIBEAC Network and
analysis of the Chinese situation
• Liberalism In Between
Europe And China : a
on East Asia
times of crisis
• LIBERALISM FOR
ACTION: aiming at a
• 近代化 modernization
OR reverse tendencies? 8
Many questions in the project
Many questions can be raised from there. Here are some examples of those we ask in
the programme and issues that can be dealt with therein:
• •Classical Political Economy and Eastern Asia;
• •Colonialism, mercantilism and unequal relations with Western countries (Unequal
Treaties in the 19th century, Asian economic domination on labor-intensive
• •Translation and dissemination of ideas from abroad;
• •European visions on Eastern Asian economies;
• •Economic discourse and the making of national identities;
• •Money and credit: institutions, policy, instability;
• •Institutionalization of the Economics profession in Eastern Asia;
• •Establishment of critical and heterodox traditions;
• •Underdevelopment, backwardness, and catching-up;
• •The role of foreign experts in regional thought and policy;
• •Research institutions, think tanks, and policy formation
Gathering Preliminary information on the introduction of Western
economics and their adoption/adaption as ideas/ideals?
• Gathering scholarly views on the history of reception and
adoption/adaption of Western thought, in particular economic thought
• Grasping the adoption/adaption of Western economic doctrines in China
Discipline of economics from the start: coining the term and developping
Yesterday, Today: introducing the West/adjusting to the West
- > Towards trying to decipher trends that emerged from there and
evolved into genuine creation of ideas, values and doctrines in the
Eastern Asia (not only economic doctrines, not only in China).
An example of how LIBEAC
adopted symmetric conceptual approaches
• Daniel A. Bell:
• Stays in China and
argues for a renewed
communitarianism on a
on Canada’s experience)
and / or ‘Neo-
genuine system of elite
• Gilles Campagnolo:
• Stays in Japan and
liberalism from a
comparative study of
German vs. Austrian
and migration of ideas
to East Asia from the
19th century to now.
Will China facing crisis follow on economic aspects
in conformity with the concept(s) of Liberalism?
The so-called ‘social market system’ … and economic liberalism
What kind of a comparison between Chinese market adoption and for
instance EU (German-originated) concept of ‘Marktsozialwirtschaft’?
• Within LIBEAC, we adopt symmetric conceptual approaches, e.g. :
Daniel A. Bell: a renewed communitarianism on a multicultural
(modelled on Canada’s experience) and / or ‘Neo-Confucian’
(Chinese genuine system of elite selection) approaches
Gilles Campagnolo: rationalism, individualism and liberalism from a
comparative study of German vs. Austrian economic doctrines, and
their migration to the US Academia from 19th century to nowadays.
Examples of Case-Studies: State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) and the
reception/translation of principal-agent theories/ ideas on
liberalization of China (including property ownership rights)/ the
pro-market tendencies (for instance based on the Austrian School?)
Is China’s economic growth and liberalization
sustainable if there is no further “liberal” reform or
evolution in political and social areas ?
Beijing Consensus versus
Washington Consensus ?
Theories in Liberalization,
(e.g. F. Hayek, A. Sen, J. Rawls,
S. Lipset, S. Huntington,
D. Rustow, J. Linz, A. Stepan)
Why China’s political system
remains authoritarian ?
(Elaborated by G. Campagnolo, CNRS and Bo Xu,
Beida at the 9th Int’al Clermont conference 2014)
of Chinese Elites
and Intellectuals in
Chinese Enlightenment and Its
Reception of the Western Thought,
(e.g. Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant)
Referring to the past : liberal thinkers
• Liberal Thought: Bertrand Russell
• Continental Thought: Henri Bergson, Rudolf Eucken
• Evolutionist Thought : Herbert Spencer
• The role of translations from Western languages/ via Japanese
• Fukuzawa Yukichi Call to Study (福沢諭吉福沢諭吉福沢諭吉福沢諭吉 「学問のすすめ」「学問のすすめ」「学問のすすめ」「学問のすすめ」) as an
answer and a catalyzer in its time
• John Dewey “economic democracy” and the principle of “well-being of the
people” (民生主義 minshengzhuyi) put forth by Sun Yat-sen (孫中山,
1866-1925) in his Three Principles of the People (三民主義 Sanminzhuyi):
Pragmatics indeed struck a chord in China. The study of Dewey’s ideas
revealing the trends of evolution at a larger level.
• Rethinking Liberalism:
Metaphysics (Confucian values and Ancient Rome Stoïcs may have some
common features, but they also differ, as well as they diverge from
monotheist sets of values),
Politics cannot be reduced to citizenship and the voting process (to say it
briefly, one popular Chinese way of questioning democracy is whether one
should rely on the judgment of the many, that may lack education, or have
more confidence in those who have been trained to understand complex
world matters : isn’t some gap obviously widening between educated
elites of the RPC and parts of the masses ?).
Authors who to potentially mobilize in rethinking forEast Asia?
• I. Berlin: ‘positive’ vs. ‘negative’ freedom: need to reassess
• F. Hayek: “rule of liberty”: its influence from Japan onward
• Amartya Sen: progress and accumulation of capacities
• John Rawls and French economist S.-C. Kolm on justice
Back and forth between ‘ideal’
(philosophical) and practical queries
• Does Liberalism truly work as a Western Ideology? Is it
therefore restricted to the West? Or is it temporarily received
until adapted to local realities, and so made ‘genuine’? If so,
what is left of the original import?
• Is the correlation between Economic Liberalism and Political
Liberalism stable, in particular in the case of non-Western
How do Japan, NIEs, and now China may serve as study-cases?
An open-ended query within the LIBEAC programme.
The concepts of a liberal civil society as they are received,
adopted/adapted, implemented/rebuked in China and when
China is confronting crisis
Categories to deal with Western liberalism, and to begin with:
Logical: irreducible derivation or univocal metaphysical norm?
Methodological: from the Modern era down to I. Berlin, F. Hayek
Ontological: views from Western/ Eastern Asian sources
Ideological: divergent facets and related obstacles
Some more filters: subjective/objective, conceptual/schematic,
positive/negative freedom, Ancient / Modern, Eastern/ Western,
liberalism related to happiness (with formal rights and effective capacities)
vs. liberalism as pure freedom (libertarianism)
• Stress I. Reflections from historical situations of
adoption/adaption on philosophy, economics
and economic policies between China, Japan,
Korea, other Neighbors, Europe and the World
• Stress II. Elements of analysis for contemporary
debates and positions in Japan and in China:
Today in debate
Using toolbox of many various sociological, political, economic concepts,
like the ‘Risk-society’ (concept by German sociologist Ulrich Beck).
Beyond China: why we must deal with
Economics of Liberalism impacting
Analysis suggested at Seoul conference (March 18, 2014), Han
Sang-Jin and Garam Lee
EU-China relationships : new trends and a challenge …
• EU→China: the biggest trading partner ??
China→EU: largest source of imports and second
largest two-way trading partner
• Liberalization of Chinese economy and Chinese
society nowadays has numerous implications for
–Japan seems to turn less towards the E.U., is
From the perspective of the European Union:
The objective stands at the confluence of two major issues for
the European Union, in terms of internal policies as well as
1/ the position and role of the European Union in the World
at present, and
2/ the past, present and future of European ideals (example
of France) and norms of conduct, governance (energy,
anthropic climate change, pollution issues etc.), and
3/ the past, present and future of citizenship ideals and so-
called Human Rights, in their universal understanding and
presentation, notably such as given by French thinker and
diplomat René Cassin at the United Nations in 1949.
• In the case of all East-Asian countries:
Is a political transition in its turn dependent upon the socio-
economic development ?
Does the role of the state, at a certain stage, have to be
phased out ?
Does the importance of funding development opens to new
modes of governance?
Taking part in the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
– or not?
Taking part in the TransPacific Partnership – or not
(especially after the US withdrew from it)?
The project addresses the question of the difference between
industrialized countries and economies that have become
leaders at different moments, with consequences on the
world order and for E.U./Japan partnership.
- Those are the questions the book tries to answer, using
knowledge from the past and economic theories of the 21st
century, to convince that grasping ‘culture’ (in a sense to
define and redefine) is key to economic understanding
related to Asia’s past in retrospect and perspectives for
prospective in the future.
- For now, China lies between
Neo-Confucianism and Neo-Marxism.
- Will China avoid the ‘dark room of
protectionism’ (Xi Jinping) and
pursue fruitful liberal progress towards a
Contemporary debates are open
looking at the past with hope for the future. 23
Thank you for your attention!
LIBEAC goes on with East Asian
networking, keeping in mind:
• Japan as the earliest ‘modernizer’, and the Asia-Pacific
economic situation now. And as a follow up to LIBEAC :
• Liberalism and Economic Development is a matter of
Innovation and Competition
• Our methodological creed is
epistemological & historical; theoretical & practical.
• Other fields where to apply: Russian Far East...
Related research themes by the author:
economic philosophy / sources of liberalism
/ Europe and East Asian development
• Gilles Campagnolo, Criticisms of Classical
Political Economy, Routledge, 2010, reprint
• Co-chief Editor Review of
• Director of series at Paris publisher
Also: co-authored publications in Japan and in
Japanese; interviews in China – check the Web!
Next slide: guidelines for authors submitting to the Review
International Conference in Economic Philosophy #3 June 15-16, 2016
Review of Economic Philosophy
Journal issued twice a year, with the support of the French National Center for Scientific
Research (CNRS). Published in French and in English by reference French publisher in
philosophy: VRIN, Place de la Sorbonne, Paris.
Price 30 €. Subscription (France) 50 € Subscription (outside France) 55 €
The Review of Economic Philosophy is devoted to the disciplinary field of economic
philosophy in the international community. The Revue de Philosophie Economique/
Review of Economic Philosophy is thus the first French journal fully dedicated to this field.
Since its creation in 2000 by Alain Leroux, the Review has acquired a significant position in
the international academic landscape, starting from its French origins, soon opening to
other contributors and new horizons. The Review publishes original articles and first-hand
material which exemplify a rational, critical and argumentative approach to philosophical
issues raised by economic life, human action and scientific understanding in connection
with the economy.
The Revue de Philosophie Economique/ Review of Economic Philosophy is accessible on
the CAIRN database. All published articles undergo rigorous double-blind peer refereeing,
with initial and final screening by the Editors. The Revue’s thematic special issues are
issued once a year (recent special issues focused on experimental economics, critical
realism and environmental justice) and second yearly issues are miscellaneous varia.
Call for Papers
The Review calls for papers submitted at the Third Conference for Economic Philosophy
directly related to this edition’s theme: “The economic Agent and its
Representations”. Papers in English by non-French speakers and writers are welcome.
The typescript must be original: the article should not have been previously published and
should not be under consideration by another journal. Papers are due by October 31,
Instructions for contributors are available at
http://www.vrin.fr and http://www.greqam.fr/en/publications/review-philo
The forthcoming special issue will be a selection of the best papers submitted on the
conference’s theme. Answers as to publication will be given within a 4 month-delay. Any
queries shall be addressed to the Editorial Board.
Editorial Board / Comité éditorial : Gilles Campagnolo and Emmanuel Picavet (co-Chief-Editors),
Thierry Martin and Christel Vivel.
Scientific Committee / Comité scientifique : Boumans, Marcel ; Bovens, Luc ; Carter, Ian ; Cartwright,
Nancy; Di Ruzza, Renato; Fleurbaey, Marc; Gamel, Claude; Garrouste, Pierre ; Guibet Lafaye, Caroline
; Hands, Wade ; Hoover, Kevin D. ; Kolm, Serge-Christophe ; Larrere, Catherine ; Laslier, Jean-rançois ;
Livet, Pierre ; Mongin, Philippe ; Munoz-Dardé, Véronique ; Ponthière, Grégory ; Tungodden, Bertil ;
Van Parijs, Philippe ; Walliser, Bernard.