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Public Lecture Slides (2.28.2017) Gilles Campagnolo: Liberalism and Chinese Economic Development


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Gilles Campagnolo: Liberalism and Chinese Economic Development

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Public Lecture Slides (2.28.2017) Gilles Campagnolo: Liberalism and Chinese Economic Development

  1. 1. Liberalism and Chinese Economic Development (LIBEAC) Gilles Campagnolo Full research professor, National Center for Scientific Research, Aix-Marseilles School of Economics, FRANCE Global Coordinator of the European Union network LIBEAC February 28, 2017 – Temple University, Tokyo 1
  2. 2. ‘China did have the courage to dwelve into the ocean of world- markets’ (in substance) : Xi Jinping, Davos Forum, 01/17/2017 • ‘Un discours impressionnant, et un discours très stratégique, vibrant plaidoyer pour une politique de portes ouvertes, pour le dialogue direct et contre le protectionnisme’ to newspaper Le Monde on January 18: Ursula von der Leyen, Defence Minister of Germany. • ‘It is however rather strange to have to ask a CP’s leader to come and help on free-trade’7 (in substance) ironically remarked Carl Bildt, former Prime Minister of Sweden. • Now, is it that strange? 2
  3. 3. Campagnolo G., Liberalism and Chinese Economic Development: Perspectives from Europe and Asia London & NYC: Routledge, May 2016 Development-Perspectives-from-Europe- and/Campagnolo/p/book/9781138909199 See also Campagnolo G. ‘Three Influent Western Philosophers in the Break-Up Period in China: Eucken, Bergson and Dewey in China’, in Ma Ying and H.-M. Trautwein (eds.), Thoughts on Economic Development in China, London & NYC: Routledge, 2012, pp. 101-136. A collective publication Liberalism and Chinese Economic Development: Perspectives from Europe and Asia • Is economic pressure any longer foreign? How to confront signs of crisis? 3
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS (Int. & Part I) Authors from Europe and Asia 1. General Introduction. In Search of the meaning of Liberalism in a China confronting crisis (Gilles Campagnolo) Part I. History of Thought: Contributions to the reception and adoption/adaption of Western thought 2. The Reception Of Kant in China (Bo Xu) 3. Yan Fu and Kaiping Mines: the Meaning of Economic Liberalism in Early Modern China. (Qunyi Liu) 4. Liberal Economic Thought in Republican China (Olga Borokh) 5. Modernization Theory, Chinese Modernization, and Social Ethics (Jean-Sébastien Gharbi) 4
  5. 5. Table of Contents (Part II) Part II. Liberalization and individualization 6. The Essence of Individuality in Kitarō Nishida’s works: A Contribution from Eastern Asia to a Transcultural Under- standing of the Meaning of Individualism (A. Altobrando) 7. Reject of Narcissism and Social Essentialism through the Anthropology of Masao Maruyama (Masataka Muramatsu) 8. Dual Individualization in East Asia: Individualization in the Society and in the Family (Sang-Jin Han and Young-Hee Shim) 9. Intensive Secularization of Engaged Buddhism to Heal Isolated People in East Asia: Active Listening by Monks in liberalized Societies of Eastern Asia (Yoshihide Sakurai) 5
  6. 6. Table of Contents (Part III) Part III. Liberalism, universalims and pluralism 10. Self-Determination: What Liberalism is it? (Zhao Lizhi) 11. Slaughter’s Liberal Theory of International Law: Comments from a Chinese Perspective. (Guimei Bai) 12. Liberalization of Russian foreign economic relations in North-Eastern Asia: a viewpoint on Chinese and Japanese business (Igor Botoev and Olga Tugulova) 13. Talking Politics in China: Media and ‘Social Management’ in a China facing fast-pace Modernization (Santiago Pinault) NYC & London, Routledge, May 2016 6
  7. 7. The book originates in a project: rationale of the project The position newly taken by China at international level implies to revise our assessment of liberalism within East Asian modernization, at all three economic, political and social levels. Changes in the Western world bear the same consequence of reassessing the situation. Focus on economic development, with a comparative analysis of the context in which it is displayed. There are indeed different ways to interpret Japanese, Korean and Chinese modernization: does ‘liberalization’ mean “Westernization”, or are elements already embedded in Asian culture? ‘Cultural economics’ and comparative ‘socio-economics’ can be put forth, while political discrepancies with the Western model point to how the rule of law may be effectively implemented in local business. For instance, the influence of the legal frame on mid- and long-term trade is of interest not only to law and economics but also to the history of economic thought. What about notions adopted/adapted from Europe? Funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n°PIRSES-GA-2012-317767 7
  8. 8. EU-East Asia LIBEAC Network and analysis of the Chinese situation • Liberalism In Between Europe And China : a European Perspective on East Asia Development facing times of crisis Beijing University Aix-en-Provence • LIBERALISM FOR ACTION: aiming at a practical impact confronting the following: • 自由主義化 liberalization • 近代化 modernization • 個人主義化 individualization OR reverse tendencies? 8
  9. 9. Many questions in the project Many questions can be raised from there. Here are some examples of those we ask in the programme and issues that can be dealt with therein: • •Classical Political Economy and Eastern Asia; • •Colonialism, mercantilism and unequal relations with Western countries (Unequal Treaties in the 19th century, Asian economic domination on labor-intensive products today); • •Translation and dissemination of ideas from abroad; • •European visions on Eastern Asian economies; • •Economic discourse and the making of national identities; • •Money and credit: institutions, policy, instability; • •Institutionalization of the Economics profession in Eastern Asia; • •Establishment of critical and heterodox traditions; • •Underdevelopment, backwardness, and catching-up; • •The role of foreign experts in regional thought and policy; • •Research institutions, think tanks, and policy formation 9
  10. 10. Gathering Preliminary information on the introduction of Western economics and their adoption/adaption as ideas/ideals? • Gathering scholarly views on the history of reception and adoption/adaption of Western thought, in particular economic thought • Grasping the adoption/adaption of Western economic doctrines in China Translations Textbooks Discipline of economics from the start: coining the term and developping the field Yesterday, Today: introducing the West/adjusting to the West - > Towards trying to decipher trends that emerged from there and evolved into genuine creation of ideas, values and doctrines in the Eastern Asia (not only economic doctrines, not only in China). 10
  11. 11. An example of how LIBEAC adopted symmetric conceptual approaches • Daniel A. Bell: • Stays in China and argues for a renewed communitarianism on a multicultural (modelled on Canada’s experience) and / or ‘Neo- Confucian’ (Chinese genuine system of elite selection) approaches • Gilles Campagnolo: • Stays in Japan and discusses rationalism, individualism and liberalism from a comparative study of German vs. Austrian economic doctrines, and migration of ideas to East Asia from the 19th century to now. 11
  12. 12. Will China facing crisis follow on economic aspects in conformity with the concept(s) of Liberalism? The so-called ‘social market system’ … and economic liberalism What kind of a comparison between Chinese market adoption and for instance EU (German-originated) concept of ‘Marktsozialwirtschaft’? • Within LIBEAC, we adopt symmetric conceptual approaches, e.g. : Daniel A. Bell: a renewed communitarianism on a multicultural (modelled on Canada’s experience) and / or ‘Neo-Confucian’ (Chinese genuine system of elite selection) approaches Gilles Campagnolo: rationalism, individualism and liberalism from a comparative study of German vs. Austrian economic doctrines, and their migration to the US Academia from 19th century to nowadays. Examples of Case-Studies: State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) and the reception/translation of principal-agent theories/ ideas on liberalization of China (including property ownership rights)/ the pro-market tendencies (for instance based on the Austrian School?) 12
  13. 13. Is China’s economic growth and liberalization sustainable if there is no further “liberal” reform or evolution in political and social areas ? Understanding Chinese Politics Beijing Consensus versus Washington Consensus ? Toolbox Theories in Liberalization, Democratization &Political Transition (e.g. F. Hayek, A. Sen, J. Rawls, S. Lipset, S. Huntington, D. Rustow, J. Linz, A. Stepan) Why China’s political system remains authoritarian ? (Elaborated by G. Campagnolo, CNRS and Bo Xu, Beida at the 9th Int’al Clermont conference 2014) Political Attitudes of Chinese Elites and Intellectuals in recent years (e.g. New- Confucianism, New Left) Retrospect: Chinese Enlightenment and Its Reception of the Western Thought, Especially Liberalism (e.g. Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant) 13
  14. 14. Referring to the past : liberal thinkers • Liberal Thought: Bertrand Russell • Continental Thought: Henri Bergson, Rudolf Eucken • Evolutionist Thought : Herbert Spencer • The role of translations from Western languages/ via Japanese • Fukuzawa Yukichi Call to Study (福沢諭吉福沢諭吉福沢諭吉福沢諭吉 「学問のすすめ」「学問のすすめ」「学問のすすめ」「学問のすすめ」) as an answer and a catalyzer in its time • John Dewey “economic democracy” and the principle of “well-being of the people” (民生主義 minshengzhuyi) put forth by Sun Yat-sen (孫中山, 1866-1925) in his Three Principles of the People (三民主義 Sanminzhuyi): Pragmatics indeed struck a chord in China. The study of Dewey’s ideas revealing the trends of evolution at a larger level. 14
  15. 15. • Rethinking Liberalism: Metaphysics (Confucian values and Ancient Rome Stoïcs may have some common features, but they also differ, as well as they diverge from monotheist sets of values), Politics cannot be reduced to citizenship and the voting process (to say it briefly, one popular Chinese way of questioning democracy is whether one should rely on the judgment of the many, that may lack education, or have more confidence in those who have been trained to understand complex world matters : isn’t some gap obviously widening between educated elites of the RPC and parts of the masses ?). Authors who to potentially mobilize in rethinking forEast Asia? • I. Berlin: ‘positive’ vs. ‘negative’ freedom: need to reassess • F. Hayek: “rule of liberty”: its influence from Japan onward • Amartya Sen: progress and accumulation of capacities • John Rawls and French economist S.-C. Kolm on justice 15
  16. 16. Back and forth between ‘ideal’ (philosophical) and practical queries • Does Liberalism truly work as a Western Ideology? Is it therefore restricted to the West? Or is it temporarily received until adapted to local realities, and so made ‘genuine’? If so, what is left of the original import? • Is the correlation between Economic Liberalism and Political Liberalism stable, in particular in the case of non-Western economies? How do Japan, NIEs, and now China may serve as study-cases? An open-ended query within the LIBEAC programme. 16
  17. 17. The concepts of a liberal civil society as they are received, adopted/adapted, implemented/rebuked in China and when China is confronting crisis Categories to deal with Western liberalism, and to begin with: Individualism Logical: irreducible derivation or univocal metaphysical norm? Methodological: from the Modern era down to I. Berlin, F. Hayek Ontological: views from Western/ Eastern Asian sources Ideological: divergent facets and related obstacles Some more filters: subjective/objective, conceptual/schematic, positive/negative freedom, Ancient / Modern, Eastern/ Western, liberalism related to happiness (with formal rights and effective capacities) vs. liberalism as pure freedom (libertarianism) 17
  18. 18. • Stress I. Reflections from historical situations of adoption/adaption on philosophy, economics and economic policies between China, Japan, Korea, other Neighbors, Europe and the World • Stress II. Elements of analysis for contemporary debates and positions in Japan and in China: Today in debate Using toolbox of many various sociological, political, economic concepts, like the ‘Risk-society’ (concept by German sociologist Ulrich Beck). 18
  19. 19. Beyond China: why we must deal with Economics of Liberalism impacting Individual/Institutional Governance Challenge of Global Risk Society Social governance Globalization Compressed Modernity Analysis suggested at Seoul conference (March 18, 2014), Han Sang-Jin and Garam Lee 19 Social Risks Emancipatory Catastrophism Violation of Sacred Norms Anthropological Shock Social Catharsis
  20. 20. EU-China relationships : new trends and a challenge … • EU→China: the biggest trading partner ?? China→EU: largest source of imports and second largest two-way trading partner • Liberalization of Chinese economy and Chinese society nowadays has numerous implications for the E.U. –Japan seems to turn less towards the E.U., is that right? 20
  21. 21. From the perspective of the European Union: The objective stands at the confluence of two major issues for the European Union, in terms of internal policies as well as external actions: 1/ the position and role of the European Union in the World at present, and 2/ the past, present and future of European ideals (example of France) and norms of conduct, governance (energy, anthropic climate change, pollution issues etc.), and 3/ the past, present and future of citizenship ideals and so- called Human Rights, in their universal understanding and presentation, notably such as given by French thinker and diplomat René Cassin at the United Nations in 1949. 21
  22. 22. • In the case of all East-Asian countries: Is a political transition in its turn dependent upon the socio- economic development ? Does the role of the state, at a certain stage, have to be phased out ? Does the importance of funding development opens to new modes of governance? Taking part in the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank – or not? Taking part in the TransPacific Partnership – or not (especially after the US withdrew from it)? The project addresses the question of the difference between industrialized countries and economies that have become leaders at different moments, with consequences on the world order and for E.U./Japan partnership. 22
  23. 23. - Those are the questions the book tries to answer, using knowledge from the past and economic theories of the 21st century, to convince that grasping ‘culture’ (in a sense to define and redefine) is key to economic understanding related to Asia’s past in retrospect and perspectives for prospective in the future. - For now, China lies between Neo-Confucianism and Neo-Marxism. - Will China avoid the ‘dark room of protectionism’ (Xi Jinping) and pursue fruitful liberal progress towards a ‘Chinese Dream’? Contemporary debates are open looking at the past with hope for the future. 23
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention! LIBEAC goes on with East Asian networking, keeping in mind: • Japan as the earliest ‘modernizer’, and the Asia-Pacific economic situation now. And as a follow up to LIBEAC : • Liberalism and Economic Development is a matter of Innovation and Competition • Our methodological creed is multidisciplinary/international comparative; epistemological & historical; theoretical & practical. • Other fields where to apply: Russian Far East... 24
  25. 25. Related research themes by the author: economic philosophy / sources of liberalism / Europe and East Asian development • Gilles Campagnolo, Criticisms of Classical Political Economy, Routledge, 2010, reprint paperback 2013. • Co-chief Editor Review of Economic Philosophy • Director of series at Paris publisher Also: co-authored publications in Japan and in Japanese; interviews in China – check the Web! Next slide: guidelines for authors submitting to the Review 25
  26. 26. 64 International Conference in Economic Philosophy #3 June 15-16, 2016 Review of Economic Philosophy Journal issued twice a year, with the support of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS). Published in French and in English by reference French publisher in philosophy: VRIN, Place de la Sorbonne, Paris. Price 30 €. Subscription (France) 50 € Subscription (outside France) 55 € The Review of Economic Philosophy is devoted to the disciplinary field of economic philosophy in the international community. The Revue de Philosophie Economique/ Review of Economic Philosophy is thus the first French journal fully dedicated to this field. Since its creation in 2000 by Alain Leroux, the Review has acquired a significant position in the international academic landscape, starting from its French origins, soon opening to other contributors and new horizons. The Review publishes original articles and first-hand material which exemplify a rational, critical and argumentative approach to philosophical issues raised by economic life, human action and scientific understanding in connection with the economy. The Revue de Philosophie Economique/ Review of Economic Philosophy is accessible on the CAIRN database. All published articles undergo rigorous double-blind peer refereeing, with initial and final screening by the Editors. The Revue’s thematic special issues are issued once a year (recent special issues focused on experimental economics, critical realism and environmental justice) and second yearly issues are miscellaneous varia. Call for Papers The Review calls for papers submitted at the Third Conference for Economic Philosophy directly related to this edition’s theme: “The economic Agent and its Representations”. Papers in English by non-French speakers and writers are welcome. The typescript must be original: the article should not have been previously published and should not be under consideration by another journal. Papers are due by October 31, 2016. Instructions for contributors are available at and The forthcoming special issue will be a selection of the best papers submitted on the conference’s theme. Answers as to publication will be given within a 4 month-delay. Any queries shall be addressed to the Editorial Board. Editorial Board / Comité éditorial : Gilles Campagnolo and Emmanuel Picavet (co-Chief-Editors), Thierry Martin and Christel Vivel. Scientific Committee / Comité scientifique : Boumans, Marcel ; Bovens, Luc ; Carter, Ian ; Cartwright, Nancy; Di Ruzza, Renato; Fleurbaey, Marc; Gamel, Claude; Garrouste, Pierre ; Guibet Lafaye, Caroline ; Hands, Wade ; Hoover, Kevin D. ; Kolm, Serge-Christophe ; Larrere, Catherine ; Laslier, Jean-rançois ; Livet, Pierre ; Mongin, Philippe ; Munoz-Dardé, Véronique ; Ponthière, Grégory ; Tungodden, Bertil ; Van Parijs, Philippe ; Walliser, Bernard. 26