Definition Of MotivationThe term motivation has been derived fromthe word “Motive”, which means the urge todo something or not to do something.Motivation is to give reason, incentive,enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specificaction or certain behavior. Motivation ispresent in every life function. Simple actssuch as eating is motivated by hunger.Education is motivated by desire forknowledge. There are two main kinds ofmotivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsicmotivation is internal. It occurs when peopleare compelled to do something out ofpleasure, importance, or desire. Extrinsicmotivation occurs when external factorscompel the person to do something.
Difference Between Motivation And Satisfaction Motivation and satisfaction are concepts that are much talked about in an organizational setup.• Motivation is what is believed to be behind the behavior or employees. It also regulates the performance levels. In an organizational setup, motivation could be anything from incentives, perks, promotion and even encouragement from the boss on completion of a given task.• Satisfaction is joy or pleasure of working and it is the sense of accomplishment after having done a job in a flawless manner. In fact, having done the job well is what brings satisfaction to most people. The pleasure or joy of doing a job is what is called as job satisfaction.• People continue with their jobs even when they have no job satisfaction as long as there is motivation in the form of good salary and perks.
Hierarchy Of Needs TheoryIt was in 1943 a Psychologist Mr. AbrahamHarold Maslow suggested his Theory ofHuman Motivation.The Maslows Pyramid of Human Needs isexplained below :-1.Physiological Needs : Physiologicalneeds are the basic needs for sustaininghuman life. These needs include food,shelter, clothing, rest, air, water, sleep.These basic human needs lie at the lowestlevel in the hierarchy of needs as they havepriority over all other needs.2. Security / Safety Needs : These are theneeds connected with the psychological fearof loss of job, property, natural calamities orhazards, etc. An employee wants protectionfrom such types of fear.
Hierarchy Of Needs Theory 3. Social Needs : An employee is a human being is rightly treated as asocial animal. He desires to stay in group. He feels that he should belong toone or the other group and the member of the group should accept himwith love and affection.4. Esteem Needs : This category of needs include the need to berespected by others, need to be appreciated by others, need to have powerand finally prestigious position. Once the previous needs are satisfied, aperson feels to be held in esteem both by himself and also by others.5. Self-actualisation Needs : Here, a person feels that he should accomplishsomething in his life. He wants to utilize his potentials to the maximumextent and desires to become what one is capable of becoming. A persondesires to have challenges and achieves something special in his life or inthe area of his specialization.
ERG TheoryClayton Paul Alderfers ERG theory from 1969 condenses Maslows five humanneeds into three categories: Existence, Relatedness and Growth.
ERG Theory• Existence Needs Include all material and physiological desires (e.g., food, water, air, clothing, safety, physical love and affection).• Relatedness Needs Encompass social and external esteem; relationships with significant others like family, friends, co-workers and employers . This also means to be recognized and feel secure as part of a group or family.• Growth Needs Internal esteem and self actualization; these impel a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and the environment (e.g., to progress toward ones ideal self). This includes desires to be creative and productive, and to complete meaningful tasks.
Theory X And Theory YIn his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor proposed twotheories by which to view employee motivation. He avoided descriptive labels andsimply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y.
Theory X And Theory Y Theory X assumes that the average person:• Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it.• Has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow than lead.• Is self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goals.• Resists change.• Is gullible and not particularly intelligent.• Essentially, Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security.• Theory Y makes the following general assumptions:• Work can be as natural as play and rest.• People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them.• People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that address higher needs such as self-fulfillment.• Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility.• Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population.
Two-Factor TheoryIn 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioral scientist proposed a two-factortheory or the motivator-hygiene theory. According to Herzberg, there aresome job factors that result in satisfaction while there are other job factorsthat prevent dissatisfaction.Hygiene factors- Hygiene factors are those job factors which are essentialfor existence of motivation at workplace. These do not lead to positivesatisfaction for long-term. But if these factors are absent / if these factors arenon-existant at workplace, then they lead to dissatisfaction. In other words,hygiene factors are those factors which when adequate / reasonable in a job,pacify the employees and do not make them dissatisfied.
Two-Factor TheoryMotivational factors- Accordingto Herzberg, the hygiene factorscannot be regarded as motivators.The motivational factors yieldpositive satisfaction. These factorsare inherent to work. Thesefactors motivate the employees fora superior performance. They arecalled satisfiers. These are factorsinvolved in performing the job.Examples of Hygiene factors andMotivational factors are shownon the right side of this slide.
McClelland’s Theory Of NeedsIn his acquired-needs theory, David McClelland proposed that an individuals specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by ones life experiences. Most of these needs can be classed as either achievement, affiliation, or power.The need for achievement (n-ach)The n-ach person is achievement motivated and therefore seeks achievement,attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in the job.The need for authority and power (n-pow) The n-pow person is authority motivated. This driver produces a need to beinfluential, effective and to make an impact. their ideas to prevail. There is alsomotivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige.The need for affiliation (n-affil)The n-affil person is affiliation motivated, and has a need for friendly relationshipsand is motivated towards interaction with other people.
Goal-Setting TheoryThe famous goal setting theory was put forward by Dr Edwin Locke in thelate 1960s. It is widely recognized as the most valid and useful motivationtheories. Today, we all use it and set our goals. Not only company andorganizations use it, we use it in our lives too.1. Goals should be specificGoals such as "Become a top sales" or "Sell as many products as I can" aretoo vague and therefore have no effect on motivation. Instead, one shouldset more specific goals. Specific means quantitative. For example, one mayset a goal such as "sell 500 products per month". This is a specific target. Ifone uses the specific result as a source of motivation and she/he willperform better.
Goal-Setting Theory2. Goals Should Be Challenging Make each goal a challenge . If the goal can be easily achieved, withoutdifficulty, it is not very motivational. Hard goals are more motivating thaneasy goals, because when a goal is challenging, a person will try best andgenerate enough enthusiasm to get it done. When the goal has beenaccomplished, the person will feel very happy and will get high rewardstoo.3. Goals should be achievableGoals cant be unattainable, of course. If the goals are not realistic toachieve, people may lose confidence in the end. So when goal is set,people have to make sure that they can achieve it. The goal should bechallenging and difficult, and people should believe that they can achieve ittoo. When developing goals, people have to make sure the goals are notonly specific, challenging, and achievable, but also are measurable andhave a target date for attainment.
Self-Efficacy TheoryThe concept of self-efficacy lies at the center of psychologist Albert Bandura’ssocial cognitive theory. According to Albert Bandura, self-efficacy is "the belief inone’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manageprospective situations.“The Role of Self-Efficacy:Bandura and others have found that an individual’s self-efficacy plays a major rolein how goals, tasks, and challenges are approached.People with a strong sense of self-efficacy:View challenging problems as tasks to be masteredDevelop deeper interest in the activities in which they participateForm a stronger sense of commitment to their interests and activitiesRecover quickly from setbacks and disappointmentsPeople with a weak sense of self-efficacy:Avoid challenging tasksBelieve that difficult tasks and situations are beyond their capabilitiesFocus on personal failings and negative outcomes and quickly lose confidence inpersonal abilities.
Self-Efficacy TheorySources of Self-Efficacy:1. Mastery Experiences: Performing a task successfully strengthens our sense of self-efficacy. However, failing to adequately deal with a task or challenge can undermine and weaken self-efficacy.2. Social Modeling: Witnessing other people successfully completing a task is another important source of self-efficacy, which is called social modeling.3. Social Persuasion: Getting verbal encouragement from others helps people overcome self-doubt and instead focus on giving their best effort to the task at hand.
Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and hisassociates. It states that individual’s behavior is a function of itsconsequences. It is based on “law of effect”, i.e., individual’s behaviorwith positive consequences tends to be repeated, but individual’s behaviorwith negative consequences tends not to be repeated.Reinforcement theory of motivation overlooks the internal state ofindividual, i.e., the inner feelings and drives of individuals are ignored bySkinner. This theory focuses totally on what happens to an individual whenhe takes some action. Thus, according to Skinner, the external environmentof the organization must be designed effectively and positively so as tomotivate the employee. This theory is a strong tool for analyzingcontrolling mechanism for individual’s behavior. However, it does notfocus on the causes of individual’s behavior.
Reinforcement TheoryThe managers use the following methods for controlling the behavior of theemployees:Positive Reinforcement- This implies giving a positive response when anindividual shows positive and required behavior. For example - Immediatelypraising an employee for coming early for job. This will increase probability ofoutstanding behavior occurring again.Negative Reinforcement- This implies rewarding an employee by removingnegative / undesirable consequences.Punishment- It implies removing positive consequences so as to lower theprobability of repeating undesirable behavior in future. In other words, punishmentmeans applying undesirable consequence for showing undesirable behavior.Extinction- It implies absence of reinforcements. In other words, extinctionimplies lowering the probability of undesired behavior by removing rewardfor that kind of behavior
Equity TheoryPsychologist John Stacey Adams put forward his equity theory model in 1962. Thetheory deals with ones own perception.The core of the equity theory is the principle of balance or equity. As per thismotivation theory, an individual’s motivation level is correlated to his perception ofequity, fairness and justice practiced by the management. Higher is individual’sperception of fairness, greater is the motivation level and vice versa. Whileevaluating fairness, employee compares the job input (in terms of contribution) tooutcome (in terms of compensation) and also compares the same with that ofanother peer of equal cadre/category. D/I ratio (output-input ratio) is used to makesuch a comparison.This can be illustrated by the following equation:
Equity TheoryNegative Tension state: Equity is perceived when this ratio is equal. While if thisratio is unequal, it leads to “equity tension”. J.Stacy Adams called this a negativetension state which motivates him to do something right to relieve this tension. Acomparison has been made between 2 workers A and B to understand this point. Referents: The four comparisons an employee can make have been termed as“referents”. The referent chosen is a significant variable in equity theory. Thesereferents are as follows: Self-inside: An employee’s experience in a different position inside his presentorganization. Self-outside: An employee’s experience in a situation outside the presentorganization. Other-inside: Another employee or group of employees inside the employee’spresent organization. Other-outside: Another employee or employees outside the employee’s presentorganization.
Expectancy TheoryThe expectancy theory was proposed by Victor Vroom of Yale School ofManagement in 1964. The Expectancy theory states that employee’s motivation is an outcomeof how much an individual wants a reward (Valence), the assessment thatthe likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance(Expectancy) and the belief that the performance will lead to reward(Instrumentality). In short, Valence is the significance associated by anindividual about the expected outcome. It is an expectation and not theactual satisfaction that an employee expects to receive after achieving thegoals. Expectancy is the faith that better efforts will result in betterperformance. Expectancy is influenced by factors such as possession ofappropriate skills for performing the job, availability of right resources,availability of crucial information and getting the required support forcompleting the job.
Expectancy TheoryInstrumentality is the faith that if a person performs well, then a valid outcomewill be there. Instrumentality is affected by factors such as believe in the peoplewho decide who receives what outcome, the simplicity of the process deciding whogets what outcome, and clarity of relationship between performance and outcomes.Thus, the expectancy theory concentrates on the following three relationships:Effort-performance relationship: What is the likelihood that the individual’seffort be recognized in his performance appraisal?Performance-reward relationship: It talks about the extent to which theemployee believes that getting a good performance appraisal leads toorganizational rewards.Rewards-personal goals relationship: It is all about the attractiveness or appeal ofthe potential reward to the individual.Vroom was of view that employees consciously decide whether to perform or not atthe job. This decision solely depended on the employee’s motivation level which inturn depends on three factors of expectancy, valence and instrumentality.