Liberalism (Part 1)

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Slideshow prepared for the first part of a series of lectures on Liberalism for PS 240 Introduction to Political Theory (Fall 2007) at the University of Kentucky. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

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Liberalism (Part 1)

  1. 1. Liberalism Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. The American Political Spectrum is small…
  3. 4. The startling Western transformation of 1500-1700
  4. 5. Organic vs. Mechanistic
  5. 6. Organic Worldview
  6. 7. First Nature
  7. 8. Second Nature
  8. 9. The world is a living world…
  9. 10. Unrestrained growth is an aberration, undesired
  10. 11. Mechanistic Worldview
  11. 12. The $$$ World
  12. 13. The world is a “dead” world…
  13. 14. Lack of continuous growth = death
  14. 15. The Organic Worldview
  15. 16. Ruach
  16. 18. Gaia
  17. 19. The rise of capitalism
  18. 20. Logical Positivism Leads to the Mechanistic Worldview
  19. 24. Cogito Ergo Sum
  20. 26. Mechanistic Philosophy
  21. 28. Logical Positivism
  22. 29. Is science objective? Economics?
  23. 31. The Liberal concept of agency is based on the theory of possessive individualism
  24. 32. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  25. 33. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  26. 34. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  27. 35. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  28. 36. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  29. 37. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  30. 38. Possessive Individualism <ul><li>What makes one human is freedom from dependence on the wills of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from dependence on others means freedom from any relations with others except those relations which the individual enters voluntarily with a view to his own interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is essentially the proprietor of his or her own person and capacities, for which he or she owes nothing to society . </li></ul><ul><li>Although an individual cannot alienate the whole of his property in his own person, he may alienate his capacity to labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society consists of a series of market relations – Since the individual is human only in so far as free, and free only in so far as proprietor of him- or herself, human society can only be a series of relations between sole proprietors, i.e., a series of market relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Since freedom from the wills of others is what makes one human, each individual’s freedom can rightfully be limited only by such obligations and rules as are necessary to secure the same freedom for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Political society is a human contrivance for the protection of the individual’s property in his person and goods, and (therefore) for the maintenance of orderly relations of exchange between individuals regarded as proprietors of themselves. </li></ul>(C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism )
  31. 39. Liberal Philosophy
  32. 40. Equality Liberty Individuality Rationality
  33. 41. Equality
  34. 42. Equality of Opportunity vs. Equality of Outcome
  35. 43. Liberty
  36. 44. Individuality
  37. 45. Rationality
  38. 46. Liberal Society
  39. 47. wars of religion and the rise of modern science in the 16th and 17th centuries
  40. 48. Feudalism Capitalism
  41. 49. Why a free-market economy is important…
  42. 50. The Pursuit of “the Good”
  43. 51. this does not mean that all beliefs and ways of life are treated as being equal
  44. 52. we have the right to find out the worth (or worthlessness) of our opinions for ourselves.
  45. 53. A way of life that cannot withstand the light of public scrutiny is not worth saving in the first place.
  46. 54. Individuals must be allowed to make mistakes so they can learn from them.
  47. 55. Liberal Politics
  48. 56. strict distinction between the state and civil society
  49. 57. ambivalence about the benefits of democracy
  50. 58. Government is BAD! Government is GREAT!
  51. 59. Neoclassical Liberals/ Social Darwinists vs. Welfare Liberals
  52. 60. The Liberal View of Freedom (Ball and Dagger, “Liberalism”) OBSTACLE: Laws, customs, or conditions that block individual choice (or pursuit of “the good”) AGENT: The “Atomistic” Individual GOAL: To live as one chooses, pursue one’s own idea of “the good.”
  53. 62. The Principle of Utility Maximization
  54. 63. Government’s job is to ameliorate the effects of utility maximization which bring harm to others
  55. 64. 2 general conclusions about government
  56. 65. Government can best promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number by leaving people alone .
  57. 66. Government is not likely to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number if it is only open to a small number.
  58. 68. Defend and Extend individual liberty
  59. 70. Harm Principle Every sane adult should be free to do whatever he or she wants as long as his or her actions do not harm, or threaten to harm, others.
  60. 72. Natural Rights
  61. 73. Utility Society, as a whole, will benefit if people are allowed to think and act freely.
  62. 74. Representative democracy only for the educated, wealthy?
  63. 75. Neoclassical liberalism VS. Welfare Liberalism
  64. 76. Neoclassical liberalism
  65. 77. Social Darwinism
  66. 81. Welfare Liberalism
  67. 82. Government as a POSITIVE force
  68. 84. Negative VS. Positive Freedom
  69. 85. Socialism VS. Welfare Liberalism

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