Minimizing Customer Returns byUsing User-Defined Fault Models  Design for Test and Manufacturing Test            Evgeny Po...
Introduction                                            • Analysis has shown that                                         ...
State-of-the-art Fault Models•   The Stuck-At model is known and          •   The N-Detect model targets every    used ver...
User-Defined Fault Models                                                               • Defines stimulus criteria for   ...
Gate Exhaustive UDFM                                                               • A way to specify that all possible   ...
Cell-Aware UDFM                                                           Layout                             vdd          ...
Cell-Aware Methodology                        Library Characterization Flow     Layout                   Analog Fault     ...
UDFM Development              • Starting with GDS2 for each cell,                extract a SPICE netlist including        ...
UDFM At-Speed            • Transient analysis of SPICE              simulation is done at two time              frames exh...
Cell-Aware: Identifying Potential                  Defects• A bridge between select S0 and data input D1 would typically n...
Production Test Design                 Core                 Core                    • AMD Notebook processor              ...
Production Test FlowMentor/AMD: “Cell-aware library characterization for advanced technology nodes and productiontest resu...
Production Test Results                                                                 •     800K IC tested  total       ...
Summary• Cell-Aware UDFM provides targeted test coverage  for defects internal to cells• Generating Cell-Aware UDFM is a s...
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Mentor graphics minimizing customer returns - new

  1. 1. Minimizing Customer Returns byUsing User-Defined Fault Models Design for Test and Manufacturing Test Evgeny Polyakov Euro Application Engineer Mentor Graphics May 2, 2012 1
  2. 2. Introduction • Analysis has shown that many customer returns are due to undetected cell- internal faults • State-of-the-art fault models do not target cell- vdd internal defects sufficiently D2 S1 D0S0 D1 Z gnd • A new method and new How can we do it? defect-oriented fault model is needed2 May 2, 2012 2
  3. 3. State-of-the-art Fault Models• The Stuck-At model is known and • The N-Detect model targets every used very widely. ATPG tools can fault multiple times. Big disadvantage generate compact test patterns. The is the large amount of additional test test is easy to implement patterns and as such high test costs• The Transition model assumes gross delays at library cell level. The ATPG • The Embedded-Multi-Detect (EMD) needs to generate at least a two model is an N-Detect model without cycle normal mode test sequence increasing the pattern count or test costs• The timing-aware and Path-Delay model assumes smaller delays along • The Gate-Exhaustive model tests critical paths. The ATPG needs to every gate/cell exhaustively. This generate a pattern that will activate results into a very large amount of the path and will propagate an edge through it test patterns and as such into very high test costs3 May 2, 2012 3
  4. 4. User-Defined Fault Models • Defines stimulus criteria for fault detection Truth Table for MUX2 • Stimulus criteria “manually”Cell “MUX2” { determined based on Fault “Z1” { experience or test failures test { StaticFault “Z”=1;Condition “D0”=0,“D1”=0,“S”=0;} test { StaticFault “Z”=1;Condition “D0”=0,“D1”=1,“S”=0;} test { StaticFault “Z”=1;Condition “D0”=0,“D1”=0,“S”=1;}} } • Leverages existing Fault UDFM that offers test alternatives for fault detection Models (Stuck-at, transition) 4 May 2, 2012 4
  5. 5. Gate Exhaustive UDFM • A way to specify that all possible stimulus combinations be used to detect faults Truth Table for MUX2 • Creates a larger test setCell “MUX2” { Fault “SA_s0_00_Z” {test {StaticFault “Z”=1;Condition “D0”=0,“D1”=0,“S”=0;}} Fault “SA_s0_01_Z” {test {StaticFault “Z”=1;Condition “D0”=0,“D1”=1,“S”=0;}} … Fault “SA_s1_11_Z” {test {StaticFault “Z”=0;Condition “D0”=1,“D1”=1,“S”=1;}}// Transition Fault “TR_s0_00_Z” {test {DelayFault “Z”=1;Condition “D0”=10,“D1”=00,“S”=00;}} Fault “TR_s0_01_Z” {test {DelayFault “Z”=1;Condition “D0”=10,“D1”=11,“S”=00;}} … Fault “TR_s1_11_Z” {test {DelayFault “Z”=0;Condition “D0”=01,“D1”=11,“S”=11;}}} 5 May 2, 2012 5
  6. 6. Cell-Aware UDFM Layout vdd • Map the layout related cell- internal defects to the transistor- Z D2 S1 D0 S0 D1 level netlist • Modify/sweep parameters to gnd determine effects of opens and bridges Transistor netlist • Generate stimulus that will detect S0 P24 P38 P23 P34 S1N P54 P48 the defects P31 P63 • Generate the UDFM Z D2 N28 N63 D1 D0 S1 N23 N32 N41 S0N N24 N33 N576 May 2, 2012 6
  7. 7. Cell-Aware Methodology Library Characterization Flow Layout Analog Fault Cell-Aware Extraction Simulation Fault Model Reports Generation SPICE Defect parasitics Matrix CAM netlist Cell-Aware UDFM defects Model7 May 2, 2012 7
  8. 8. UDFM Development • Starting with GDS2 for each cell, extract a SPICE netlist including parasitics • Perform SPICE simulations and sweep the parasitic capacitor to values from 1KΩ to 20KΩ to model bridges • Replace each parasitic resistor with 1GΩ to model opens • Compare fault-free simulation results with fault injected simulation results8 May 2, 2012 8
  9. 9. UDFM At-Speed • Transient analysis of SPICE simulation is done at two time frames exhaustively • The lowest detectable cells are complex cells (MUXs, AOs) and cells with high drive strength • Gross delay and small delay fault models target different kinds of bridge types9 May 2, 2012 9
  10. 10. Cell-Aware: Identifying Potential Defects• A bridge between select S0 and data input D1 would typically not be detected using traditional test generation• Standard test generation would not assign a value to D1 when S0 is activeMentor/AMD: “Cell-aware library characterization for advanced technology nodes and productiontest results from a 32nm processorF. Hapke, et al., 2012 DATE10 May 2, 2012 10
  11. 11. Production Test Design Core Core • AMD Notebook processor • ~200mm2, 1.5B transistors Core Core • 4 Cores: 35M transistors/core • Process: 32nm GPU • 1MB L2 cache • DDR3 Memory Fault models • DirectX GPU / 822M transistors • Stuck-At (Slow-Speed) • Transition (At-speed ND5) • Cell-Aware (Slow-speed) • Cell-Aware(At-speed)Mentor/AMD: “Cell-aware library characterization for advanced technology nodes and production”test results from a 32nm processor (Presentation)F. Hapke, et al., 2012 DATE May 2, 2012 11
  12. 12. Production Test FlowMentor/AMD: “Cell-aware library characterization for advanced technology nodes and productiontest results from a 32nm processorF. Hapke, et al., 2012 DATE12 May 2, 2012 12
  13. 13. Production Test Results • 800K IC tested total total231 fails Total 699 fails = 885 PPM 609 fails • Slow-speed cell-aware patterns detected292 ppm 771 ppm 231 defects that the standard test patterns did not detect Slow-speed At-speed • Slow-speed cell-aware patterns reduced DPM by 292 90 141 468 fails fails fails • At-speed cell-aware patterns detected 609 defects that the standard test patterns did not detect • At-speed cell-aware patterns reduced DPM by 771 • Combining both cell-aware tests shows a DPM reduction of 885Mentor/AMD: “Cell-aware library characterization for advanced technology nodes and productiontest results from a 32nm processorF. Hapke, et al., 2012 DATE 13 May 2, 2012 13
  14. 14. Summary• Cell-Aware UDFM provides targeted test coverage for defects internal to cells• Generating Cell-Aware UDFM is a straight-forward exercise, and only has to be done once for each library• Significant results have already been seen in production test and those results have been published14 May 2, 2012 14

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