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5 Strategies to Support Content Area Teachers with the New Common Core Literacy Standards
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5 Strategies to Support Content Area Teachers with the New Common Core Literacy Standards

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With the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), teachers in all subject areas must now share the responsibility for teaching literacy in every classroom. These new requirements make it vital that you and …

With the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), teachers in all subject areas must now share the responsibility for teaching literacy in every classroom. These new requirements make it vital that you and your staff understand the standards for literacy and how to incorporate them into lessons and classroom activities.

5 Strategies:

• Choose Vocabulary strategically
• Include More Primary Sources and juxtapose against secondary sources
• Introduce 21st Century Sources
• Ask thought-provoking questions
• Emphasize writing arguments

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  • 1. 5 Strategies for5 Strategies for  Content Area  hTeachers October 10, 2012, Diane Rymery Director, Professional Development Catapult Learning
  • 2. SETTING THE STAGE 2
  • 3. Common Core:  A Quick Refresher State Standards Common Core State Standards Bloom’s Taxonomy Application Model One lifetime job Multiple careers Reading Non‐fiction, technical skills National GlobalNational Global 20th Century 21st century 3
  • 4. The Montillation of Traxoline i i h l bIt is very important that you learn about  traxoline.  Traxoline is a new form of zionter.  It  is montilled in Ceristanna.  The Cerstannians   gristeriate large amounts of fevona and then  bracter it to quasel traxoline.  Traxoline may  well be one of our most lukized snexlaus in the  future because of our zionter lescelidge. 4
  • 5. Literacy – A Whole School Approach  Each discipline requires  unique forms of reading  Literature q g and writing.  The way knowledge is Science  The way knowledge is  acquired, developed, and  shared in a given field  History/ Social Studies Basic  Literary  often requires discipline‐ specific skills. Social Studies Mathematics Skills  Content‐area teachers  are not being asked to be  English teachers Mathematics Visual/English teachers. Visual/ Performing Arts 5
  • 6. Literacy – A Whole School Approach 90% 100% Distribution of Literacy and Informational Passage  by Grade in 2009 NAEP Reading and Framework Distribution of Literacy and Informational Passage  by Grade in 2009 NAEP Reading and Framework Grade Literary Informational 4 50% 50% % % 70% 80% 8 45% 55% 12 30% 70% Source : National Assessment Governing Board (2008).  Reading  Framework for 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress.   50% 60% Washington, DC.  US Government Printing Office.  20% 30% 40% These expectations are based on the  0% 10% 20% Informational Text Literary Text cumulative reading experiences  from English  language arts and  content‐area courses.  Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 12 6
  • 7. Literacy ‐ Complex Text It is important to note that text complexity is not necessarily  synonymous with text difficulty. According to Marc Bauerlein’s y y ff y g article, Too Dumb for Complex Texts (2011, Educational Leadership,  pp. 28‐32), complex text often contains “…dense meanings,  l b t t t hi ti t d b l d btl th i l “Complex text demands a willingness to probe,  the capacity for uninterrupted thinking, and a receptivity to deep thinking This requires theelaborate structure, sophisticated vocabulary, and subtle authorial  intentions… [which] require a slower labor. Readers can’t proceed to  the next paragraph without grasping the previous one, can’t glide  receptivity to deep thinking. This requires the  reader to slow down and think while reading  complex texts.”p g p g p g p g over unfamiliar words and phrases, and they can’t forget what they  read four pages earlier.” Bauerlein goes on to say that complex text  demands a willingness to probe the capacity for uninterrupted complex texts. demands a willingness to probe, the capacity for uninterrupted  thinking, and a receptivity to deep thinking. This requires the reader  to slow down and think while reading complex texts.  7
  • 8. 5 STRATEGIES5 STRATEGIES FOR CONTENT AREA TEACHERSFOR CONTENT AREA TEACHERS 8
  • 9. 5 Strategies for Content Area Teachers 1 Choose vocabulary strategically.1 Choose vocabulary strategically. 2 Include more primary sources – and juxtapose against  secondary sources.y 3 Introduce 21st century sources. 4 Ask thought‐provoking questions.g p g q 5 Emphasize writing arguments 9 5 Emphasize writing arguments.
  • 10. Strategic Vocabulary Selection  Which words are most important?  How much will prior knowledge affect student  understanding?  Is this word encountered frequently?  Is the concept significant? C i b fi d f ? Can it be figured out from context?  Are there words that should be grouped?Are there words that should be grouped? 10
  • 11. C i d b l l f i i l i Tiered Vocabulary Categorize words by levels of instructional importance.  Tier I  Everyday or basic words which rarely require  direct instruction W d d b l d Tier I direct instruction.  EXAMPLES:  child, happy, book  Words used by mature language users; words  that extend meaning and precision.Tier II  EXAMPLES:  coincidence, fortunate, absurd,  Ti III  Relate to a specific domain such as Physics,  l b l h asinine, surreptitious Tier III Algebra, English, etc.   EXAMPLES:  absolute value, exponent, theorem,  transversal, vector, sine …. metaphor, meter,  dactyl, tone, theme, motif 11 * Reference: Isabelle Beck
  • 12. Practice Activity:  The Crisis These are the times that try men's souls. The summer  soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis,  shrink from the service of their country; but he that  stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man  and woman Tyranny like hell is not easily conquered;and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered;  yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder  the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we , g p obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness  only that gives every thing its value. Thomas Paine, December 23, 1776 12
  • 13. 5 Strategies for Content Area Teachers 1 Choose vocabulary strategically. 2 Include more primary sources – and juxtapose against  secondary sources. 1 Choose vocabulary strategically.2 Include more primary sources – and juxtapose against  secondary sources.y 3 Introduce 21st century sources. y 4 Ask thought‐provoking questions.g p g q 5 Emphasize writing arguments 13 5 Emphasize writing arguments.
  • 14. Reading for Literacy in History RH.1 Cite specific textual evidence to  support analysis of primary and secondarysupport analysis of primary and secondary  sources, attending to such features as the  date and origin of the information.date and origin of the information. 14
  • 15. Primary and Secondary Sources  Why is important to read primary as well as secondary  sources?  What are the important questions to ask about historical  sources? 1) Authenticity and validity A h ’2) Author’s purpose 3) Author’s bias 4) Intended audience 5) Context ‐ space and time coordinates5) Context ‐ space and time coordinates 15
  • 16. Sample Activity Students delineate and evaluate the argument that Thomas Paine makes  in Common Sense. They assess the reasoning present in his analysis,  including the premises and purposes of his essayincluding the premises and purposes of his essay.  Common Core Appendix B English Language ArtsEnglish Language Arts Sample Social Studies Activity Thomas Paine's Common Sense, published in January 1776, was sold  by the thousands.  p y Compare and analyze the arguments made in the Declaration of  Independence and trace the impact of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense  Cite evidence. (RH.9) 16 ( )
  • 17. 5 Strategies for Content Area Teachers 1 Choose vocabulary strategically. 2 Include more primary sources – and juxtapose against  secondary sources.y 3 Introduce “other” sources. 3 Introduce 21st century sources. 4 Ask thought‐provoking questions.g p g q 5 Emphasize writing arguments 17 5 Emphasize writing arguments.
  • 18. Reading for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects  RST.9 Compare and contrast findings  presented in a text to those from other  sources (including their own  experiments), noting when the findings  support or contradict previous  explanations or accounts. 18
  • 19. It’s No Longer Just About Books…. PODCASTSPODCASTS 19
  • 20. 5 Strategies for Content Area Teachers 1 Choose vocabulary strategically. 2 Include more primary sources – and juxtapose against  secondary sources.y 3 Seek out 21st century sources. 4 Ask thought‐provoking questions.4 Ask thought‐provoking questions.g p g q 5 Emphasize writing arguments g p g q 20 5 Emphasize writing arguments.
  • 21. It’s All About the Questions… What thought provoking questions could you ask to get  students to think deeply about topics?students to think deeply about topics? 21NASA:  http://climate.nasa.gov
  • 22. Global Warming – Statements from Experts Three years ago I identified problems in previous climate studies  that, in my mind, threw doubt on the very existence of globalthat, in my mind, threw doubt on the very existence of global  warming. Last year, following an intensive research effort  involving a dozen scientists, I concluded that global warming was  real and that the prior estimates of the rate of warming werereal and that the prior estimates of the rate of warming were  correct. I’m now going a step further: Humans are almost  entirely the cause. The Conversion of a Climate‐Change Skepticg p By RICHARD A. MULLER Published:  July 28, 2012 , New York Times 22
  • 23. Global Warming – Statements from Experts ANTHONY WATTS: I agree with him that global warming exists.  However the ability to attribute the percentage of globalHowever, the ability to attribute the percentage of global  warming to CO2 versus other man‐made influences is still an  open question. September 17, 2012 at 4:55 PM EDT  Climate Change Skeptic Says Global Warming Crowd Oversells  Its Message  By: Spencer Michels, PBS News Hour BlogBy: Spencer Michels, PBS News Hour Blog 23
  • 24. Global Warming – Other Sources NASA: http://climate nasa gov/keyIndicators/index cfm#globalTempNASA:  http://climate.nasa.gov/keyIndicators/index.cfm#globalTemp 24
  • 25. Global Warming – Other Sources NASA: http://climate.nasa.gov/keyIndicators/index.cfm#globalTemp 25
  • 26. Global Warming – Reactions to the Data Our results show that the average  temperature of the earth’s land  The U.S. temperature record is  unreliable.  The errors in the record p has risen by two and a half  degrees Fahrenheit over the past  250 years, including an increase of  exceed by a wide margin the  purported rise in temperature of 0.7º  C (about 1.2º F) during the twentieth  one and a half degrees over the  most recent 50 years. century. Consequently, this record  should not be cited as evidence of  any trend in temperature that may  h d th U S d i The Conversion of a Climate‐Change  Skeptic have occurred across the U.S. during  the past century. Watts A 2009: Is the U S surfaceSkeptic By RICHARD A. MULLER Published: July 28, 2012 New York Times Watts, A., 2009: Is the U.S. surface  temperature record reliable? Published online at:  http://wattsupwiththat.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/surface stationsreport spring09.pdfstationsreport_spring09.pdf 26
  • 27. 5 Strategies for Content Area Teachers 1 Choose vocabulary strategically. 2 Include more primary sources – and juxtapose against  secondary sources.y 3 Introduce 21st century sources. 4 Ask thought‐provoking questions.g p g q 5 Emphasize writing arguments5 Emphasize writing arguments 27 5 Emphasize writing arguments.5 Emphasize writing arguments.
  • 28. Reading for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects  RST.9 Compare and contrast findings  t d i t t t th f thpresented in a text to those from other  sources (including their own experiments),  noting when the findings support ornoting when the findings support or  contradict previous explanations or accounts. 28
  • 29. Writing Arguments  Write arguments focused on discipline‐specific  content: a) Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from  alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization  that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s),  counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. b) Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data  and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and  limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in alimitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a  discipline‐appropriate form and in a manner that  anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns. 29
  • 30. Take a Position, Defend it Using Evidence… 30
  • 31. 5 Strategies for Content Area Teachers 1 Choose vocabulary strategically. 2 Include more primary sources – and juxtapose against  secondary sources.y 3 Introduce 21st century sources. 4 Ask thought‐provoking questions.g p g q 5 Emphasize writing arguments 31 5 Emphasize writing arguments.
  • 32. Useful Resources http://teachinghistory.org/best‐practices/using‐primary‐ sources/14578 (Teaching History) This is an excellent resource for ( g y) guiding students into a deeper analysis of primary sources. The  guides focus on life histories, objects, and photographs. http://learni.st/learnings/21699‐what‐is‐historical‐thinking‐.  The  video on this site is about thinking historically and includes  information on using and comparing sources.information on using and comparing sources.  http://climate.nasa.gov/ ‐ NASA’s Global Climate Change website. http://www.dataintheclassroom.org/ ‐ Data in the Classroom is an  online resource for K‐12 teachers interested in using real scientific  data in their teachingdata in their teaching.  32
  • 33. Beyond Basic Literacy “We have spent a century of education beholden  t th li t ti f lit l ito the generalist notion of literacy learning— the idea that if we just provide adequate basic  skills from that point forward kids withskills, from that point forward kids with  adequate background knowledge will be able to  read anything successfully ”read anything successfully.    Shanahan, T & Shanahan, C. (2008). Teaching disciplinary literacy to  adolescents: Rethinking contentadolescents: Rethinking content.  33
  • 34. Thank you!Thank you! Diane Rymer Director, Professional Development Catapult Learning d l ldiane.rymer@catapultlearning.com