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5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
5.1 communities & ecosystems
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5.1 communities & ecosystems

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    1. 5.1 Communities & Ecosystems Topic 5 – Ecology & Evolution
    2. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.1 Define: Ecology—the study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment. Ecosystem—a community and its abiotic environment. Population—a group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time. Community—a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area. Species—a group of organisms which can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Habitat—the environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism.
    3. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.2 autotroph (producer) – organisms that use an external energy source to produce organic matter from inorganic raw materials Examples: trees, plants, algae, blue-green bacteria
    4. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems heterotroph (consumer) – organisms that use the energy in organic matter, obtained from other organisms Three Types: 1. consumers 2. detritivores 3. saprotrophs
    5. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 1. Consumers – feed on other living things 2. Detritivores – feed on dead organic matter by ingesting it 3. Saprotrophs (decomposers) – feed on dead organic material by secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products
    6. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.4 Describe what is meant by a food chain giving three examples, each with at least three linkages (four organisms). A food chain is a sequence of relationships between trophic levels where each member feeds on the previous one.
    7. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.5 Describe what is meant by a food web. A food web is a a diagram that shows the feeding relationships in a community. The arrows indicate the direction of energy flow.
    8. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.6 Define trophic level. A trophic level is where an organism is positioned on a food web. Producer Primary consumer Secondary consumer Tertiary consumer
    9. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.7 Deduce the trophic level of organisms in a food chain and a food web. (3) • The student should be able to place an organism at the level of producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer etc, as the terms herbivore and carnivore are not always applicable.
    10. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.8 Construct a food web containing up to 10 organisms, using appropriate information.
    11. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.9 State that light is the initial energy source for almost all communities. • xref- Photosynthesis
    12. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.10 Explain the energy flow in a food chain. • Energy losses between trophic levels include material not consumed or material not assimilated, and heat loss through cell respiration.
    13. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.11 State that when energy transformations take place, the process is never 100% efficient
    14. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.12 Explain reasons for the shape of pyramids of energy. • A pyramid of energy shows the flow of energy from one trophic level to the next in a community. The units of pyramids of energy are therefore energy per unit area per unit time, e.g. KJ m-2 yr-1
    15. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
    16. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems
    17. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.13 Explain that energy enters and leaves ecosystems, but nutrients must be recycled. Energy enters as light and usually leaves as heat. Nutrients do not usually enter an ecosystem and must be used again and again (nutrient cycles). Nutrients can be substances such as Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus
    18. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.14 State that saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (decomposers) recycle nutrients.
    19. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems The IBO assessment statements:
    20. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.1 Define: Ecology—the study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment. Ecosystem—a community and its abiotic environment. Population—a group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time. Community—a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area. Species—a group of organisms which can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Habitat—the environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism.
    21. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.2 Distinguish between autotrophs and heterotrophs. • autotroph (producer) – organisms that use an external energy source to produce organic matter from inorganic raw materials • heterotroph (consumer) – organisms that use the energy in organic matter, obtained from other organisms
    22. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.3 Distinguish between consumers, detritivores and saprotrophs. •Consumer: an organism that ingests other organic matter that is living or recently killed. •Detritivore: an organism that ingests non-living organic matter. •Saprotroph: an organism that lives on or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion.
    23. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.4 Describe what is meant by a food chain giving three examples, each with at least 3 linkages (4 organisms). • Only real examples should be used from natural ecosystems. A→ B indicates that A is being “eaten” by B (that is, the arrow indicates the direction of energy flow). Each food chain should include a producer and consumers, but not decomposers. Named organisms at either species or genus level should be used. Common species names can be used instead of binomial names. General names such as “tree” or “fish” should not be used.
    24. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.5 Describe what is meant by a food web. 5.1.6 Define trophic level. 5.1.7 Deduce the trophic level of organisms in a food chain and a food web. •Students should be able to place an organism at the level of producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, and so on, as the terms herbivore and carnivore are not always applicable.
    25. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.8 Construct a food web containing up to 10 organisms, using appropriate information. 5.1.9 State that light is the initial energy source for almost all communities. •No reference to communities where food chains start with chemical energy is required. 5.1.10 Explain the energy flow in a food chain. •Energy losses between trophic levels include material not consumed or material not assimilated, and heat loss through cell respiration.
    26. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.11 State that energy transformations are never 100% efficient. •Reference to the second law of thermodynamics is not expected. 5.1.12 Explain reasons for the shape of pyramids of energy. •A pyramid of energy shows the flow of energy from one trophic level to the next in a community. The units of pyramids of energy are, therefore, energy per unit area per unit time, for example, kJ m–2 yr–1.
    27. 5.1 Communities and Ecosystems 5.1.13 Explain that energy enters and leaves ecosystems, but nutrients must be recycled. 5.1.14 State that saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (decomposers) recycle nutrients.

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