05.1 ecology - communities & ecosystems

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  • 5.1.1 – Define species, habitat, population , community, ecosystem and ecology
  • 5.1.1 – Define species, habitat, population , community, ecosystem and ecology
  • 5.1.1 – Define species, habitat, population , community, ecosystem and ecology
  • 5.1.1 – Define species, habitat, population , community, ecosystem and ecology
  • 5.1.1 – Define species, habitat, population , community, ecosystem and ecology
  • 5.1.2 – Distinguish between autotroph and heterotroph
  • 5.1.3 – Distinguish between consumers, detritivores and saprotrophs.
  • 5.1.3 – Distinguish between consumers, detritivores and saprotrophs.
  • 5.1.4 – Describe what is meant by a food chain, giving three examples each with at least three linkages (four organisms)Only real examples should be used from natural ecosystems. Each food chain should include a producer and consumers, but not decomposers. Named organisms at either species or genus level should be used. Common species name can be used instead of binomial names. General names such as “trees” or “fish” should not be used.
  • 5.1.4 – Describe what is meant by a food chain, giving three examples each with at least three linkages (four organisms)Only real examples should be used from natural ecosystems. Each food chain should include a producer and consumers, but not decomposers. Named organisms at either species or genus level should be used. Common species name can be used instead of binomial names. General names such as “trees” or “fish” should not be used.
  • 5.1.5 – Describe what is meant by a food web
  • 5.1.6 – Define trophic level.
  • 5.1.7 – Deduce the trophic level of organisms in a food chain and a food webStudents should be able to place an organism at the level of produce, primary consumer, secondary consumer, and so on, as the terms herbivore and carnivore are not always applicable.
  • 5.1.8 – Construct a food web containing up to 10 organisms, using appropriate information.
  • 5.1.8 – Construct a food web containing up to 10 organisms, using appropriate information.
  • 5.1.9 – State that light is the initial energy source for almost all communities.No reference to communities where food chains start with chemical energy is required.
  • 5.1.10 – Explain the energy flow in a food chain. Energy losses between trophic levels include material not consumed or material not assimilated and heat loss through cell respiration.5.1.11 – State that energy transformations are never 100% efficient. Reference to the second law of thermodynamics is not expected.
  • 5.1.10 – Explain the energy flow in a food chain. Energy losses between trophic levels include material not consumed or material not assimilated and heat loss through cell respiration.5.1.11 – State that energy transformations are never 100% efficient. Reference to the second law of thermodynamics is not expected.
  • 5.1.12 – Explain reasons for the shape of pyramids of energy.A pyramid of energy shows the flow of energy from one trophic level to the next in a community. The units of pyramids of energy are, therefore, energy per unit area per time, for example, kJ m-2 yr -1
  • 5.1.12 – Explain reasons for the shape of pyramids of energy.A pyramid of energy shows the flow of energy from one trophic level to the next in a community. The units of pyramids of energy are, therefore, energy per unit area per time, for example, kJ m-2 yr -1
  • 5.1.13 – Explain that energy enters and leaves ecosystems, but nutrients must be recycled.
  • 5.1.14 – State that saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (decomposers) recycle nutrients.
  • 5.1.0 – Communities and Ecosystems
  • 05.1 ecology - communities & ecosystems

    1. 1. Topic 5.1 – Communities & Ecosystems
    2. 2. Ecology is the study of relationships between organisms and between organisms and their environment. Organisms are described at various levels of organization. Species – a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. 5.1.1
    3. 3. Population - a group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time. Community – a group of populations living in and interacting with each other in an area. 5.1.1
    4. 4. Ecosystems - a community and its abiotic factors Habitat – the environment in which a species normally lives. 5.1.1
    5. 5. In an ecosystem, biotic factors are living and abiotic factors are non-living (temperature, precipitation, etc.) 5.1.1
    6. 6. BIOSPHERE ECOSYSTEM COMMUNITY POPULATION SPECIES 5.1.1
    7. 7. The sun in the ultimate source of energy in the biosphere. Autotrophs (aka producers) are organisms that are able to use light energy to synthesize organic molecules from simple inorganic substances. Use photosynthesis. Heterotrophs (aka consumers) are organisms that obtain energy from other organisms via cell respiration. 5.1.2
    8. 8. Different types of heterotrophs include: • Consumers – organisms that ingest other organic matter this is living or recently killed • Detritivore – organisms that ingest non-living organic matter • Saprotroph – organisms that live on or in non-living organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into and absorbing the products of digestion. 5.1.3
    9. 9. 5.1.3
    10. 10. A food chain is a linear model that shows how energy and matter move in an ecosystem. Arrows indicate the movement of energy and matter from one organism to another. Sun  Plant  Frog  Fish  Walrus  Polar Bear 5.1.4
    11. 11. 5.1.4
    12. 12. Food webs are combined food chains that show all of the possible feeding and energy/matter transfers in an ecosystem. 5.1.5
    13. 13. Trophic levels identify an organisms role in a given food chain. In a food web, a single organism can have multiple trophic level. 5.1.6
    14. 14. In a food web/chain: 1st trophic level = producer 2nd trophic level = secondary consumer 3rd trophic level = tertiary consumer 4th trophic level = quaternary consumer 5.1.7
    15. 15. 5.1.8
    16. 16. Humans Sperm whale Blue whale Crabeater seal Killer whale Elephant seal Leopard seal Emperor penguin Adelie penguins Squid Petrel Fish Carnivorous plankton Krill Herbivorous plankton Phytoplankton 5.1.8
    17. 17. Solar light/energy is the initial energy source of any food chain or web. It is converted to chemical energy by producers via autotrophy and then moved by heterotrophs. First Trophic Level Second Trophic Level Producers (plants) Primary consumers (herbivores) Heat Third Trophic Level Secondary consumers (carnivores) Heat Fourth Trophic Level Tertiary consumers (top carnivores) Heat Solar energy Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat 5.1.9
    18. 18. Energy converted by autotrophs is consumed by heterotrophs and moved through the trophic levels. However, this movement is not 100% efficient. Some material is not consumed and energy at each level is lost as heat and used for other life processes. 5.1.10-11
    19. 19. 5.1.10-11
    20. 20. Energy pyramids show the flow of energy from one trophic level to the next in a community. Energy is measured in kJ m-2 yr-1. 5.1.12
    21. 21. About 90% of energy is a trophic level is used, so only 10% is passed to the next level, which results in an energy pyramid’s narrowing shape. 5.1.12
    22. 22. Although energy can leave an ecosystem, nutrients must be recycled. They can be introduced via rock weathering and taken up by producers. Decomposers recycle nutrients from dead organic matter. 5.1.13
    23. 23. An ecosystem survives through a combination of energy flow and matter recycling. Saprotrophs and fungi play a large role in nutrient recycling. Saprotrophs Fungi 5.1.14
    24. 24. Review 5.1
    25. 25. 1. Distinguish between habitat and ecosystem. 2. Look at these food chains again. Determine the trophic levels for each organisms listed. 1. 2. 3. Grass  grasshopper toad  hognose snake  hawk Algae  mayfly larva  trout  kingfisher Diatoms  copepods  herring  seal  shark 3. From the following information, construct a food web: – – – – – – – Grass is eaten by rabbits, grasshoppers and mice Rabbits are eaten by hawks Grasshoppers are eaten by toads and mice and garter snakes Mice are eaten by hawks Toads are eaten by hognose snakes Hognose snakes are eaten by hawks Garter snakes are eaten by hawks 4. From the food web in 3, determine the trophic level of the toad. 5. Answer the first three pages from the review packet. 5.1

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