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Cancer PPT (From Mrs. Brenda Lee)
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Cancer PPT (From Mrs. Brenda Lee)


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  • 1. CANCER
  • 2. Background Cells divide and multiply as the body needs them. When these cells continue multiplying when the body doesnt need them, the result is a mass or growth, also called a tumor.
  • 3. Background These growths are considered either benign or malignant. Each type of cancer is unique with its own causes, symptoms, and methods of treatment. Like with all groups of disease, some types of cancer are more common than others.
  • 4. Cancera malignant tumor of potentially unlimited growth that expands locally by invasion and metastasis
  • 5. Cancer Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world: 1 in 4 deaths are due to cancer Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women There are over 100 different forms of cancer
  • 6. Cancer The division (mitosis) of normal cells is precisely controlled. New cells are only formed for growth or to replace dead ones. Cancerous cells divide repeatedly out of control even though they are not needed, they crowd out other normal cells and function abnormally. They can also destroy the correct
  • 7. Cancer Is One Outcome of A Runaway Cell CycleLicentious division - prostate cancer cells during division.
  • 8. The Cell Cycle and Cancer Neoplasm- abnormal growth of cells  Benign neoplasms are not cancerous Encapsulated; Do not invade neighboring tissue or spread  Malignant neoplasms are cancerous Not encapsulated; Readily invade neighboring tissues May also detach and lodge in distant places – metastasis
  • 9. The Cell Cycle and Cancer Carcinogenesis – development of cancer  Tends to be gradual, takes years
  • 10. Characteristics of Cancer Cells Lack differentiation (control) Have abnormal nuclei Form tumors Mitosis controlled by contact with neighboring cells – contact inhibition Cancer cells have lost contact inhibition
  • 11. Characteristics of Cancer Cells Undergo metastasis  Original tumor easily fragments  New tumors appear in other organs Undergo angiogenesis  Formation of new blood vessels
  • 12. Cancer Cells Versus Normal Cells
  • 13. Stages of Cancer Stage I cancers are localized to one part of the body; usually curable. Stage II cancers are locally advanced. Stage III cancers are also locally advanced. Stage IV cancers have often metastasized, or spread to other organs or throughout the body.
  • 14. Stages of Cancer
  • 15. What causes cancer? Cancer arises from the mutation of a normal gene. A factor which brings about a mutation is called a mutagen. It is thought that several mutations need to occur to give rise to cancer Mutated genes that cause cancer are called oncogenes .
  • 16. What causes cancer? Any agent that causes cancer is called a carcinogen and is described as carcinogenic. Cancerous cells do not self destruct and continue to divide rapidly producing millions of new cancerous cells.
  • 17. Carcinogens Ionising radiation – X Rays, UV light Chemicals – tar from cigarettes Virus infection – papilloma virus can be responsible for cervical cancer. Hereditary predisposition – Some families are more susceptible to getting certain cancers. Remember you can’t inherit cancer its just that you maybe more susceptible to getting it.
  • 18. What are the different kinds of Cancer? The four most common cancers are: Breast Cancer Colon Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer
  • 19. What are the different kinds of Cancer? Cancers of Blood and Lymphatic Systems: Hodgkins Disease Leukemias Lymphomas Multiple Myeloma Waldenströms Disease
  • 20. What are the different kinds of Cancer? Cancers of Digestive Systems: Head and Neck Cancers Esophageal Cancer Stomach Cancer Cancer of Pancreas Liver Cancer Colon and Rectal Cancer Anal cancer
  • 21. What are the different kinds of Cancer? Cancers of Urinary system: Kidney Cancer Bladder Cancer Testis Cancer Prostate Cancer
  • 22. What are the different kinds of Cancer? Miscellaneous cancers: Brain Tumors Bone Tumors Nasopharyngeal Cancer Retroperitoneal sarcomas Soft Tissue Tumors Thyroid Cancer Cancers of Unknown Primary Site
  • 23. What causes cancer? Stress There is connection between stress, immune system and cancer, that is changing the direction of research: it now appears that cancer cells make proteins that actually tell the immune system to let them alone and even to help them grow.
  • 24. What causes cancer? Stress cancer can weaken the immune system and allowing a tumor to grow
  • 25. VIDEOHow to recognize breast cancer symptoms?
  • 26. Cancer Treatment Chemotherapy treatment uses medicine to weaken and destroy cancer cells in the body, including cells at the original cancer site and any cancer cells that may have spread to another part of the body.
  • 27. Cancer Treatment Chemotherapy treatment or "chemo," is a systemic therapy, which means it affects the whole body by going through the bloodstream. In some cases, chemotherapy is given before surgery to shrink the cancer
  • 28. Cancer Treatment Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) high-energy rays are used to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing and dividing. A specialist in radiation therapy is called a radiation oncologist.
  • 29. Cancer Treatment Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) Like surgery, radiation therapy is a local treatment; it affects cancer cells only in the treated area. Radiation can come from a machine (external radiation).
  • 30. Cancer Treatment Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) It can also come from an implant (a small container of radioactive material) placed directly into or near the tumor (internal radiation). Some patients receive both kinds of radiation therapy.
  • 31. Cancer Prevention Healthy lifestyle  Exercise and proper breathing  Balanced diet  Complete rest and sleep  Water (8 to 10 glasses daily)  Eating Fruit on an empty stomach
  • 32. Cancer Research/25 pt.quiz Scrapbook, HANDWRITTEN(A) s/alphalist   (B) entinfo/womenandcancer.htm
  • 33.  Describe/explain the following in your entry: What is cancer and what are the causes? Give the 4 cancer types common to women and briefly describe What are the causes and prevention?
  • 34.  Screening, testing, and treatment commonly done in women’s cancer Role of food in fighting cancer Write your personal goals of a healthy lifestyle and how/when you will apply it. Add 3-4 more references aside from the one given on top