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Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology


  1. 1. Abnormal Cell division: Cancer Mrs. Taktak                                                                    
  2. 2. What is cancer? <ul><li>When cells in some area of the body begin dividing uncontrollably, excess tissue develops. This is called a tumor, growth, or neoplasm. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cancer related terms <ul><li>Oncology: The study of tumors </li></ul><ul><li>Oncologist: A physician who specializes in tumors and cancers </li></ul><ul><li>Malignant: A tumor that is cancerous </li></ul><ul><li>Benign: A tumor that is non-cancerous </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Cancer <ul><li>Cancers are classified by the types of tissues they are affecting. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 5 main forms of cancers. </li></ul>                                                                                                                             
  5. 5. Cancer Classification <ul><li>1. Carcinomas : Come from cells that line body cavities or line organs (lung cancer) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Melanomas : come from cells that produce melanin in the skin (skin cancer) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sarcoma ; come from muscle cells or connective tissues </li></ul><ul><li>4. Leukemia : Cancer of blood cells and blood forming organs </li></ul><ul><li>5. Lymphoma : cancer of lymph nodes and vessels </li></ul>
  6. 6. Carcinoma Examples <ul><li>Gastric Carcinoma – cancer of stomach lining </li></ul><ul><li>Lung cancer (carcinoma of squamous cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Esophogeal carcinoma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feels like food is stuck in the esophogus </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Carcinoma pictures                                               
  8. 8. Melanoma <ul><li>A serious form of skin cancer that begins in the melanocytes (pigment cells) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sarcoma <ul><li>Sarcoma of an arm </li></ul><ul><li>(a long section) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Leukemia <ul><li>Cancer of blood cells </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lymphoma <ul><li>Cancer of the Lymphatic </li></ul><ul><li>system </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cancer causing agents <ul><li>Carcinogens- chemicals or environmental agents that cause cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Oncogenes- genes that transform normal cells into cancerous cells by stimulating uncontrolled cell division. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Common cancer causing factors <ul><li>Cigarette smoke and tobacco products </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive exposure to sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive alcohol consumption </li></ul><ul><li>High doses of estrogen (HRT) </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive radiation exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational hazards (asbestos,…) </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul>
  14. 14. Warning signs of cancer… <ul><li>1. Change in bowel or bladder habits </li></ul><ul><li>2. A sore that doesn’t heal </li></ul><ul><li>3. Unusual bleeding or discharge </li></ul><ul><li>4. Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>5. Indigestion or difficulty swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>6. Change in a wart or mole </li></ul><ul><li>7. Nagging cough or hoarseness </li></ul>
  15. 15. Common treatments for Cancer <ul><li>1. Surgery : the oldest form of treatment for cancer, the objective being to remove the tumor. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Radiation: energy carried by particles that can alter the genetic code of a cell, it attacks the cells that are dividing. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Common treatments for Cancer <ul><li>Chemotherapy: Can be drugs (by pill), shots, or IV’s to control and or destroy cancer. Unlike radiation, “chemo” can reach cancers that have spread throughout the body. It often has many side affects such as nausea, diarrhea, hair loss, fatigue </li></ul>
  17. 17. Facts about cancer <ul><li>Statistics predict that 3 out of 4 families will be affected by cancer over the lifetime of the family members…. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer is the leading killer of children between the ages of 3 and 14 </li></ul><ul><li>To be considered “cured” from cancer is to be cancer free for a period of 5 years. </li></ul>
  18. 18. More facts about cancer <ul><li>About 50% of people are able to be “cured” from cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Lung cancer is the one cancer that continues to claim a greater number of victims, even in women. This is attributed to smoking… </li></ul>