The Cell (PPT from Mrs. Brenda Lee)


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The Cell (PPT from Mrs. Brenda Lee)

  1. 1. Cell Structuresand Functions
  2. 2. The Cell the smallest unit of life that can carry out all the functions of a living thing. fundamental building blocks of organisms.
  3. 3. Brief History of the Cell
  4. 4. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
  5. 5. Robert Hooke (1635-1703)
  6. 6. Cork CellThe word cell comes from theLatin cella, a small room.
  7. 7. The Cell Theory Robert Brown (1831)  Described the nucleus of the cell Matthias Schleiden (1838)  All plants are composed of cells. Theodor Schwann (1838)  All animals are composed of cells Rudolph Virchow (1850s)  Cells reproduce
  8. 8. The Cell Theory All organisms are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms. Cells come only from pre-existing cells because cells are self- reproducing.
  9. 9. Microscopy Today  Electron Microscopes are scientific instruments that use a beam of highly energetic electrons to examine objects on a very fine scale.
  10. 10. Sizes of Living Things Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.0.1 nm 1 nm 10 nm 100 nm 1 m 10 m 100 m 1 mm 1 cm 0.1 m 1 m 10 m 100 m 1 km protein chloroplast plant and mouse rose animal frog egg amino cells acid virus ostrich most bacteria human egg ant egg atom blue whale electron microscope human light microscope human eye 10
  11. 11. Microscopy Today Topography: shows the surface features of an object or "how it looks", its texture; and materials properties (hardness, reflectivity...etc.) Morphology: shows shape and size of the particles making up the object; and materials properties (ductility, strength, reactivity...etc.)
  12. 12. Animal Cell Anatomy Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Plasma membrane:outer surface thatregulates entrance andexit of molecules protein phospholipid Nucleus: command center of cell Nuclear envelope: doubleCytoskeleton: maintains membrane with nuclear porescell shape and assists movement that encloses nucleusof cell parts: Chromatin: diffuse threads containing DNA and protein Microtubules: protein Nucleolus: region that produces cylinders that move subunits of ribosomes organelles Endoplasmic reticulum: Intermediate filaments: protein and lipid metabolism protein fibers that provide Rough ER: studded with stability of shape ribosomes that synthesize Actin filaments: protein proteins fibers that play a role in Smooth ER: lacks change of shape ribosomes, synthesizes lipid moleculesCentrioles*: short Peroxisome: vesiclecylinders of microtubules that is involved inof unknown function fatty acid metabolismCentrosome: microtubule Ribosomes:organizing center that particles that carrycontains a pair of centrioles out protein synthesis Lysosome*: vesicle that Polyribosome: string of digests macromolecules ribosomes simultaneously and even cell parts synthesizing same protein Vesicle: small membrane- bounded sac that stores and transports substances Mitochondrion: organelle Cytoplasm: semifluid that carries out cellular matrix outside nucleus respiration, producing ATP that contains organelles molecules Golgi apparatus: processes, packages, *not in plant cells and secretes modified proteins 12
  13. 13. Microscopy and Cheek Cells Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 30 m 30 m 25 m 25 m 25 mBright-field. Light Bright-field (stained). Differential interference Phase contrast. Density Dark-field. Light is passedpassing through the Dyes are used to stain contrast. Optical methods differences in the through the specimen atspecimen is brought the specimen. Certain are used to enhance specimen cause light rays an oblique angle so thatdirectly into focus. Usually, components take up density differences within to come out of “phase.” the objective lens receivesthe low level of contrast the dye more than other the specimen so that The microscope enhances only light diffracted andwithin the specimen components, and therefore certain regions appear these phase differences so scattered by the object.interferes with viewing all contrast is enhanced. brighter than others. This that some regions of the This technique is used tobut its largest components. technique is used to view specimen appear brighter view organelles, which living cells, chromosomes, or darker than others. The appear quite bright against and organelle masses. technique is widely used a dark field. to observe living cells and organelles. (Bright field): © Ed Reschke; (Bright field stained): © Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers, Inc.; (Differential, Phase contrast, Dark field): © David M. Phillips/Visuals Unlimited 13
  14. 14. Two Basic Typesof Cell Structure Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
  15. 15. Two Basic Types of Cell Structure Prokaryotic “pro” = before, “kary”= nut (nucleus) NO nucleus or NO organelles Genetic material (DNA) is naked in the cytoplasm Cell division is called binary fission
  16. 16. Two Basic Types of Cell Structure Prokaryotic Believed to be the first cells to evolve. Ribosomes are the only organelle.
  17. 17. Binary Fission:Prokaryotes Cell Division
  18. 18. Two Basic Types of Cell StructureProkaryotic • Kingdom Monera • Kingdom Archaea
  19. 19. Two Basic Typesof Cell Structure Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
  20. 20. Two Basic Typesof Cell StructureEukaryotic Nucleus containing DNA “Eu” - true Organelles (membrane bound) with specialized functions Cell division: mitosis and meiosis
  21. 21. Two Basic Typesof Cell StructureEukaryotic• Kingdom Protista• Kingdom Fungi• Kingdom Plantae• Kingdom Animalia
  22. 22. Differences between Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic cellsBacterial cells also contain flagellum, plasmid and capsule. Feature Prokaryote Eukaryote Size Small about 0.5 Up to 40 micrometers micrometers Genetic Circular DNA (in DNA in form of linear material cytoplasm) chromosomes ( in nucleus) Many organelles: Few present, none •Double membranes e.g.:Organelles nucleus, mitochondria & membrane bound chloroplasts •Single membrane e.g.: GA, ER & lysosomes •Fungi: rigid, formed from Rigid formed from polysaccharide, chitin. Cell walls glycoproteins (mainly •Plant: rigid, formed from polysaccharides. E.g.: murein) cellulose. •Animals no cell wallRibosome’s 70s 80s
  23. 23. VIDEO
  24. 24. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Animal Cell Cytoplasm Nucleolu Nucleu s Cell Membrane sGo toSection:
  25. 25. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function1. Nucleus  Nickname: “The Control Center”  Function: holds the DNA  Parts: 1. Nucleolus: dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that helps make ribosomes
  26. 26. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
  27. 27. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Animal Cell Cytoplasm Nucleolus Ribosome Nucleus s Cell MembraneGo toSection:
  28. 28. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function2. Ribosomes  Function: makes proteins  Found in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic
  29. 29. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function3. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)  Nickname: “Roads”  Function: The internal delivery system of the cell
  30. 30. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Animal Cell Cytoplasm Nucleolus Ribosomes Nucleus Cell Membrane Smooth Rough Endoplasm Endoplasmi ic c Reticulum ReticulumGo toSection:
  31. 31. Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER: Rough appearance because of ribosomes Function: helps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomes
  32. 32. Endoplasmic ReticulumSmooth ER:• similar in appearance with RER but NOribosomes•Function: functions depending on thespecific cell type including lipid andsteroid hormone synthesis ,breakdown of lipid-soluble toxins inliver cells, and control of calciumrelease in muscle cell contraction.
  33. 33. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Animal Cell Cytoplasm Nucleolus Ribosomes Nucleus Cell Membrane Smooth Endoplasmic Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Reticulum Golgi ComplexGo toSection:
  34. 34. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function4. Golgi Complex  Nickname: The shippers  Function: packages, modifies, and transports materials to different location inside/outside of the cell  Appearance: stack of pancakes
  35. 35. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and FunctionGolgi Complex Modifies proteins and lipids made by the ER and prepares them for export from the cell
  36. 36. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Animal Cell Cytoplasm Nucleolus Ribosomes Nucleus Cell Membrane Smooth Endoplasmic Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Reticulum Golgi BodiesGo toSection:
  37. 37. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function5. Lysosomes: circular, but bigger than ribosomes  Nickname: “Clean-up Crews”  Function: to break down food into particles the rest of the cell can use and to destroy old cells
  38. 38. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function  Single membrane bound structure.  Contains digestive enzymes that break down cellular waste and debris and nutrients for use by the cell.  Http:// me/html
  39. 39. Animation
  40. 40. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Animal Cell Cytoplasm Nucleolus Ribosomes Nucleus Cell Membrane MitochondriRough Endoplasmic a Smooth Endoplasmic ReticulumReticulum Golgi Bodies
  41. 41. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function6. Mitochondria  Nickname: “The Powerhouse”  Function: Energy formation  Breaks down food to make ATP  ATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy
  42. 42. Animal Cell Cytoplasm Nucleolus Ribosomes Nucleus Cell Membrane MitochondriaRough Endoplasmic Smooth EndoplasmicReticulum Reticulum Golgi Bodies
  43. 43. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function7. Plasma Membrane • Another name: Cell Membrane; “traffic enforcer” • Function: hold the cell together. It keeps all of the pieces, like the organelles and the CYTOPLASM inside; regulates the entrance and exit of materials in and out the cell.
  44. 44. Plasma MembraneFluid Mosaic Model of Plasma Membrane
  45. 45. Fluid Mosaic Model of the Plasma Membrane The membrane is seen as a bilayer of phospholipids in which protein molecules are embedded.Lipid bilayer a. Phospholipids : polar head and nonpolar tail b. Cholesterol: makes membrane a bit more rigid c. Proteins: provide means of transportation through membrane and receptor proteins d. Carbohydrates: recognition patterns for cells and organisms (“self” markers to avoid immune system attack)
  46. 46. 8. Cytoskeleton-composed offilaments andmicrotubulesthat maintain thecell shape andassist movementof its part
  47. 47. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function9. Cilia and flagella  External appendages from the cell membrane that aid in locomotion of the cell.  Cilia also help to move substance past the membrane.
  48. 48. Cilia and Flagella • The most common examples of ciliated cells are those that line the trachea, or wind pipe of animals. • The cilia move mucus containing dirt and other inhaled particles up the windpipe and into the esophagus where they can be coughed up or
  49. 49. Cilia and FlagellaParamecium sp.This unicellular organism sweeps food into itsmouth by using cilia.
  50. 50. Cilia and FlagellaSperm cell has a tail or "flagellum"which executes the lashingmovements to propel the sperm.
  51. 51. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function10. Centrioles  Found only in animal cells.  Self-replicating  Made of bundles of microtubules.  Help in organizing cell division.
  52. 52. 11. Cytosol/Cytoplasm• The cytosol is the "soup"within which all the other cellorganelles reside and where mostof the cellular metabolism occurs .* Though mostly water, the cytosol is full of proteins that control cell metabolism including signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, and transcription factors.
  53. 53.  Structures only found in PLANT Cells
  54. 54. Plant Cell Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Vacuole Cell MembraneGo toSection:
  55. 55. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function11. Huge vacuoles  Function: store water, waste products, food, and other cellular materials.  It may take up most of the cells volume.  When there is no water, the plant wilts
  56. 56. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
  57. 57. Plant Cell Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Vacuole Chloroplast sCell MembraneGo toSection:
  58. 58. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function12. Chloroplasts  Function: traps energy from the sun to produce food for the plant cell  Green in color because of chlorophyll
  59. 59. Chloroplasts
  60. 60. Plant Cell Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Section 7-2 Vacuole Chloroplasts Cell Membrane Cell WallGo toSection:
  61. 61. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function9. Cell Wall  Function: provides support and protection to the cell membrane; gives rigidity to the cell structure.  Found outside the cell membrane in plant cells.
  62. 62. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function
  63. 63. Plant Cell Cytoplasm Vacuole Smooth ER Ribosomes ChloroplastsCell MembraneCell Wall Nucleolus Golgi Bodies Nucleus Mitochondria Rough ER
  64. 64. Cell Structure Reflects CellFunction Muscle cells: contain numerous mitochondria providing energy needed for muscle contraction (action).
  65. 65. Cell Structure Reflects CellFunction Cells of renal tubule lining are cube- shaped (helps with their function of absorption/secretion)
  66. 66. Cell Structure Reflects CellFunction Nerve cells: are long and thin to carry impulses over distance.
  67. 67. Cell Structure Reflects CellFunction Columnar epithelium with cilia on the free surface lines of the respiratory tract, fallopian tubes and uterus. The cilia beat rhythmically to transport particles.
  68. 68. Cell Structure Reflects CellFunction Sperm cell has a tail or "flagellum" which executes the lashing movements to propel the sperm.
  69. 69. Cell Structure Reflects CellFunction Red blood cells contain hemoglobin which permits them to transport oxygen (and carbon dioxide).
  70. 70. Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
  71. 71. Comparing Plant and Animal Cells Plant Animal