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Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
Cell Communciation
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Cell Communciation

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  • NO – local regulator – help with relaxation of smooth muscles – viagra – allows for erection of penis – if released by endothelial cells Can act as a neurotransmitter if released by neurons; kills backter and cancer cells if secreted by WBC
  • Transcript

    • 1. Cell Communication
    • 2. Cell “signaling” <ul><li>Direct communication between cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell junctions between adjacent cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell-cell recognition through interaction of surface protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication via signals between cells (signal transduction pathways) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local signaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long distance signaling </li></ul></ul>
    • 3. Direct Communication <ul><li>Gap junctions & Plasmodesmata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in cytoplasmic continuity favoring cellular interactions </li></ul></ul>
    • 4. Direct Communication <ul><li>  Cell surface contacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor protein specificity </li></ul></ul>
    • 5. Direct Communication: Surface Proteins - Yeast Cells <ul><li>Mating in yeast cells </li></ul><ul><li>a cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Releases a-factor that binds to  cell receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li> cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Releases  -factor that binds to a cell receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion of 2 cells (mating) producing diploid cell </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. Direct Communication: Surface Proteins - Yeast Cells
    • 7. Signal Transduction Pathways <ul><li>Local communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Transmitting cell” secretes a local regulator (molecule that “talks” only to cells close by) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long Distance communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Transmitting cell” secretes a molecule that travels long distances to reach its target cell </li></ul></ul>
    • 8. Local Communication <ul><li>Paracrine Signaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell secretes a molecule that interacts with a target cell nearby </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synaptic Signaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell releases a neurotransmitter into a synapse between two cells that are nearly touching </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. Long Distance Communication <ul><li>Endocrine signaling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized cells release molecules (hormones) via blood stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones move to distant target cells to elicit response </li></ul></ul>
    • 10.  
    • 11. Signal Transduction Pathway
    • 12. 3 Steps in Signal Transduction <ul><li>Reception of the signal </li></ul><ul><li>Transduction of the message to the intended “receiver” </li></ul><ul><li>Response to the message </li></ul>
    • 13. Signal Reception <ul><li>Lock-&-key analogy (enzyme-substrate recognition) </li></ul><ul><li>Ligand molecules (Signal molecule) interacts with receptor protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor protein bound in the plasma membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conformational change of ligand-receptor causes activation </li></ul>
    • 14. Examples of membrane associated receptor molecules <ul><li>G-Protein linked receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrosine-kinase receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Ion-channel receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Exception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intracellular receptors </li></ul></ul>
    • 15. G-Protein linked Receptors <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision and smell sensory reception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial infections </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. <ul><li>G-protein acts as the ON-OFF switch </li></ul><ul><li>Inactive form when bound to GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Active form when bound to GTP </li></ul>
    • 17. Tyrosine-kinase Receptors <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives “growth factor” signals that stimulate cell division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled cell growth - cancer </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. <ul><li>Inactive form – Exists as single polypeptides </li></ul><ul><li>Active form – Formation of a dimer that acts as an enzyme and its own substrate </li></ul>
    • 19. Ion-channel Receptors <ul><li>Important in the nervous system </li></ul>
    • 20. Exception <ul><li>Intracellular Receptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals able to pass through the plasma membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small molecule (NO) or lipid soluble (testosterone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitric oxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relax smooth muscle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Act as a neurotransmitter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help kill unwanted cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 21.  
    • 22. Signal Transduction <ul><li>Enzyme Cascade </li></ul><ul><li>Second Messengers </li></ul><ul><li>Amplification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-step pathway to turn “on” many different target molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More steps involved = more activated products </li></ul></ul>
    • 23. Signal Transduction <ul><li>Domino Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme Cascade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein phosphorylation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protein kinase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds phosphates to substrate from ATP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protein phosphatase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removes phosphates from substrate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 24. Enzyme Cascade
    • 25. <ul><li>Gene Activation </li></ul>
    • 26. Second Messengers <ul><li>“ Activated relay molecule” </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in G-protein linked receptors & tyrosine-kinase receptor </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cyclic AMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium ions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAG (Diacylglycerol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP3 (Inositol triphosphate) </li></ul></ul>
    • 27. G-protein & cAMP <ul><li>Epinephrine & glycogen breakdown </li></ul>
    • 28. Calcium ions <ul><li>Muscle Contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitter release </li></ul>
    • 29.  
    • 30. Cellular Response <ul><li>Cellular activity/metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Rearrangement of cytoskeleton (movement) </li></ul><ul><li>Specific gene activity </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of enzymes or regulate the activity of an enzyme </li></ul>
    • 31.  

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