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Digestive System Ppt


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Digestive System Ppt

  1. 1. Digestive System
  2. 2. Nutrients• Section 48-1 : Review on own• Carbohydrates• Proteins• Fats •Elements found in the compound• Lipids •Function of the compound• Vitamins •Examples of the compound• Minerals •Monomer of the compound• Water
  3. 3. Overview of Digestive SystemPlease read but do not take notes on this slide.• The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal as well as the organs and glands that contribute digestive enzymes and other products to specific portions of the canal.• In processing the food you eat, your digestive system uses mechanical and chemical methods.• Three major types of macromolecules must be broken down during digestion—carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. – When these macromolecules are broken down sufficiently— into individual glucose monomers, amino acids, and fatty acids, respectively—those components (and water) must be absorbed into the body at the small intestine.• Wastes proceed through the large intestine, where the feces form and more water is absorbed.
  4. 4. Types of Digestion• Physical Digestion• Chemical Digestion• Both
  5. 5. Physical Digestion• Mechanical Digestion• Macromolecule is PHYSICALLY broken down into SMALLER pieces in order to increase SURFACE area to maximize ENZYME action.• Examples: – Chewing – Churning
  6. 6. Chemical Digestion• Digestive enzymes are involved by CHEMICALLY breaking the bonds on the macromolecules until MONOMERS are formed.• Examples: – Salivary amylase breaks down starch
  7. 7. Route of Digestion• Mouth• Pharynx• Esophagus• Stomach• Small intestine• Large intestine• Anus
  8. 8. As food directly passes through thegastrointestinal tractoralimentary canalspecific secretions that aid in digestionare released along the way.
  9. 9. Accessory Organs• Aids in digestion• BUT…• Food does NOT pass into these organs.• Instead these organs SECRETE fluids that will enter the alimentary canal through DUCTS.• Examples: – Liver – Pancreas – Gallbladder – Salivary Glands
  10. 10. AccessoryOrgans
  11. 11. Digestive Secretions• Helps with breaking down of foods• All are hydrolysis reactions• Some are enzymatic reactions• Others are NOT.
  12. 12. Salivary amylase• FUNCTIONS – Mouth• MADE – Salivary glands• PURPOSE – Polysaccharide → Disaccharide – Example • Starch → Maltose
  13. 13. Pepsin• FUNCTION – Stomach• MADE – Gastric Glands• PURPOSE – Protein → Polypeptides
  14. 14. Pancreatic amylase• FUNCTION – Small intestine• MADE – Pancreas• PURPOSE – Polysaccharide → Disaccharide
  15. 15. Pancreatic lipase• FUNCTION – Small Intestine• MADE – Pancreas• PURPOSE – Lipids → 3 Fatty Acids + Glycerol
  16. 16. Trypsin/Chymotrypsin• FUNCTION – Small intestine• MADE – Pancreas• PURPOSE – Polypeptides → Peptides
  17. 17. Intestinal lipase• FUNCTION – Small Intestine• MADE – Intestinal glands• PURPOSE – Lipids → 3 Fatty Acids + Glycerol
  18. 18. Intestinal peptidase• FUNCTION – Small Intestine• MADE – Intestinal glands• PURPOSE – Peptides → Amino Acids
  19. 19. Maltase/Sucrase/Lactase• FUNCTION – Small Intestine• MADE – Intestinal glands• PURPOSE – Disaccharides → Monosaccharides
  20. 20. Additional Secretions for Digestion
  21. 21. Saliva• FUNCTION – Mouth• MADE – Salivary Glands• PURPOSE – Begins digestion of food
  22. 22. Mucus• FUNCTION • FUNCTION – Mouth – Stomach• MADE • MADE – Salivary glands – Gastric pits• PURPOSE • PURPOSE – Lubricates food – Protects lining from HCl
  23. 23. Gastrin• FUNCTION – Stomach• MADE – Gastric pits• PURPOSE – Hormone that stimulates HCl production
  24. 24. Gastric fluid/HCl acid• FUNCTION – Stomach• MADE – Gastric pits• PURPOSE – Converts pepsinogen → pepsin – Kills bacteria
  25. 25. Secretin• FUNCTION – Small intestine• MADE – Intestinal glands• PURPOSE – Hormone that stimulates the liver and pancreas to secrete fluid
  26. 26. Bile• FUNCTION – Small Intestine• MADE – Liver• PURPOSE – Emulsifies fats/lipids
  27. 27. Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3• FUNCTION – Small intestine• MADE – Pancreas• PURPOSE – Neutralizes stomach acid
  28. 28. Carbohydrates Organ Before Enzyme After Mouth Starch Salivary amylase Disaccharides Starch Pancreatic amylase Disaccharides Maltose Maltase Smallintestine Sucrase Mono- Sucrose saccharides Lactose Lactase
  29. 29. Digestion of Carbohydrates Click on the link above and view the animation associated with Digestion of Carbohydrates
  30. 30. Proteins Organ Before Enzyme AfterStomach Protein Pepsin Polypeptides Trypsin Polypeptides Chymotrypsin Peptides Smallintestine Peptides Peptidase Amino acids
  31. 31. Digestion of ProteinsClick on the link above and view the animation associated with Digestion of Proteins
  32. 32. LipidsOrgan Before Enzyme AfterSmall Emulsified Pancreatic lipase 3 Fatty acids +Intestine Lipids Intestinal lipase Glycerol
  33. 33. Digestion of LipidsClick on the link above and view the animation associated with Digestion of Lipids
  34. 34. Review the Structures of the Digestive SystemClick on this phrase for Review Information