Contractions I `ve = I have you `ve = you have he `s = he has she `s = she has It `s = it has we `ve = we have they `ve = they have Have n`t = have not Has n`t = has not
The present perfect connects the past and the present. It refers to a past action, but we’re more interested in the present effects or results of the action.
I’ ve cut my finger (Jhon cut his finger in the past, but it hurts now)
We often use the present perfect to give people some new information or (in the question form) to ask for information.
What’s the matter? Have you lost your job?
Present perfect and already *We use already with the present perfect to emphasise that the actions has happened before the moment of speaking. We normally use it only in affirmative sentences and questions. We usually put it between have, has, etc. and the main verb. =Lucy: I`ve already phoned them (Lucy emphasises that she`s phoned them before now)
We use since + a point in the time to say when something started:
The British have had the metric system since the 1970s .
or (with negative verb) to say when something stopped:
The old man hasn’t lived in France since 1952.
Since is often followed by a subject + a verb to show the point in time
Young people have used it since they started school
We usually use since with the present perfect
The British have had the metric system since 1971.
Exercise. Young Australian men often spend a lot of time and money in their cars. One of them is talking about his obsession. Complete what he say, using since and for.
I left school whn I was 16. _______ then I’ve had five cars (and I’ve crashed three of them). I usually have a car ____ a year. Then I get bored with oit and buy another one. My dad has had the same car ____ ten years. He hasn’t bought a new car _____ he got married the second time. I can’t understand that. But I most admit I’ve had this Holden Commodore ________ 1995 and it’s still going well. I’ll probably keep it _________ a few more months.