Unit 10


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Present perfect; already and yet; for and since.

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Unit 10

  1. 1. UNIT 10 PRESENT PERFECT: Already, yet Present perfect vs. Simple past By Lilis Puentes 2008 Rev. Ceci
  2. 2. Present Perfect <ul><li>The present perfect is formed with the verb have/has + past participle . </li></ul><ul><li>*Have you been to a jazz club? * * Has she ridden in a streetcar? </li></ul><ul><li>- Yes, I`ve been to several. - Yes, she`s ridden one </li></ul><ul><li>No, I haven`t been to one - No, she hasn`t ridden one </li></ul><ul><li>* Has he called home lately? * Have they eaten dinner yet? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, he`s called twice this week - Yes, they`ve already eaten </li></ul><ul><li>No, he hasn`t called in months - No they haven`t eaten yet </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Has : </li></ul><ul><li>I, he, she or it </li></ul><ul><li>Have: </li></ul><ul><li>you, we, they </li></ul>Contractions I `ve = I have you `ve = you have he `s = he has she `s = she has It `s = it has we `ve = we have they `ve = they have Have n`t = have not Has n`t = has not <ul><li>The present perfect connects the past and the present. It refers to a past action, but we’re more interested in the present effects or results of the action. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ ve cut my finger (Jhon cut his finger in the past, but it hurts now) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We often use the present perfect to give people some new information or (in the question form) to ask for information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the matter? Have you lost your job? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Present perfect and already *We use already with the present perfect to emphasise that the actions has happened before the moment of speaking. We normally use it only in affirmative sentences and questions. We usually put it between have, has, etc. and the main verb. =Lucy: I`ve already phoned them (Lucy emphasises that she`s phoned them before now)
  5. 5. Present perfect and yet <ul><li>We use yet with the present perfect to say that something has not happeed up to now, but we expect it to happen some time in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>We use it only in questions and negative sentences. We put it at the end of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>=Lucy: Have you found a job yet ? </li></ul><ul><li>I haven`t had any replies yet. </li></ul><ul><li>(Lucy expects to have some replies in the future.) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Present Perfect vs. Simple past <ul><li>Use the present perfect for an indefinite time in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Use the simple past for a specific event in the past </li></ul><ul><li>* Have you ever eaten Moroccan food? </li></ul><ul><li>-Yes, I have . I ate it once in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>-No, I haven` t. I `ve never eaten it </li></ul><ul><li>* Have you ever had green curry? </li></ul><ul><li>-Yes, I have . I tried it several years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>- No, I haven`t . I `ve never had it </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Difference between the past simple and the present perfect </li></ul><ul><li>*We use the past simple to talk about an event or situation that happened at a particular time in the past, which is now finished. </li></ul><ul><li>*We use the present perfect when we`re more interested in the present results or effects of a past action. The action is unfinished at the time of speaking. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Practice <ul><li>Jack Knight has had a lot of problems recently . His mother is angry with him. Make sentences, using the present perfect with already or yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: You must get up eairler. You/ miss the bus/ three times/ this week. </li></ul><ul><li>= You`ve already missed the bus three times this week. </li></ul><ul><li>1.- I`m not giving you any more money. I/ give you/ $ 70 this month. </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>2.- I asked you to tidy your room two days ago. You/not do. </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>3.- I bought you a jacket last week. You/ lose it. </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>4.- I told you to phone your grandfather. You/not ring. </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________________________ </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Jo Thomas is a famous guitar player with the band “Earthforce”. A journalist is asking him quiestions. Write her questions, using the present or the simple past. </li></ul><ul><li>1__________________________________________________? </li></ul><ul><li>Jo: I started playing the guitar when I was nine </li></ul><ul><li>2__________________________________________________? </li></ul><ul><li>Jo: I left school when I was sixteen. </li></ul><ul><li>3__________________________________________________? </li></ul><ul><li>Jo: We gave our first concert in a pub in Plymouth. </li></ul><ul><li>4__________________________________________________? </li></ul><ul><li>Jo: We got our first recording contract five years ago with Polygram Records. </li></ul><ul><li>5__________________________________________________? </li></ul><ul><li>Jo: We`ve made twelve albums so far </li></ul><ul><li>6___________________________________________________? </li></ul><ul><li>Jo: No, we haven´t been there yet. They don`t seem like our music in the States. </li></ul>
  10. 10. For and since <ul><li>How long did you live in Thailand? I lived there for two years. </li></ul><ul><li>It was wonderful. </li></ul><ul><li>How long have you lived in Miami? I’ve lived here for six months. </li></ul><ul><li>I love it here. </li></ul><ul><li> I’ve lived here since last year. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m really happy. </li></ul><ul><li>For is used with periods of time, while since is used with points in time. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions with for Expressions with since </li></ul><ul><li>two weeks 6:45 </li></ul><ul><li>a few months last weekend </li></ul><ul><li>several years 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>a long time elementary school </li></ul>
  11. 11. Time preposition for <ul><li>We use for to answer the question ‘How long?’ </li></ul><ul><li>For is usually followed by a period of time, often a number of hours, days, weeks, months, years, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The British have had the metric system for nearly 30 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For can be used with present, past and future tenses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present simple: They use it for two or three weeks a year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past simple: I lived in France for a year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present perfect: I’ve used miles and pounds for sixty years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future: I’ll go on using them for the rest of my life!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We don’t use for with expressions like: all morning, all day, all evening, all year, all my life, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve used miles all my life (NOT for all my life) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Since <ul><li>We use since + a point in the time to say when something started: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The British have had the metric system since the 1970s . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>or (with negative verb) to say when something stopped: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The old man hasn’t lived in France since 1952. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Since is often followed by a subject + a verb to show the point in time </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young people have used it since they started school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We usually use since with the present perfect </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The British have had the metric system since 1971. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Exercise. Young Australian men often spend a lot of time and money in their cars. One of them is talking about his obsession. Complete what he say, using since and for. <ul><li>I left school whn I was 16. _______ then I’ve had five cars (and I’ve crashed three of them). I usually have a car ____ a year. Then I get bored with oit and buy another one. My dad has had the same car ____ ten years. He hasn’t bought a new car _____ he got married the second time. I can’t understand that. But I most admit I’ve had this Holden Commodore ________ 1995 and it’s still going well. I’ll probably keep it _________ a few more months. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bibliography <ul><li>Interchange: Third Edition </li></ul><ul><li>Full contact Level 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Richards, Hull, Proctor, & Shields </li></ul><ul><li>Cambridge </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar in Steps </li></ul><ul><li>David Bolton and Noel Goodey </li></ul><ul><li>Richmond Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar in Steps: Practice book </li></ul><ul><li>David Bolton and Noel Goodey </li></ul><ul><li>Richmond Publishing </li></ul>