Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Final Revision Segundo


Published on

Final Revision Segundo

  1. 1. Final revision Present Perfect The Future Have to / Don’t have to / Must First Conditional Second Conditional Giving advice
  2. 2. Present Perfect Tense <ul><li>FORM: have / has + past participle </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative : I have seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>She has seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative : Have you seen the film before? </li></ul><ul><li>Has she seen the film before? </li></ul><ul><li>Negative : They have n’t seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>He has n’t seen the film before. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>1- Recent events : It is used to describe recent events without a definite time . We use just in positive sentences to say that something happened very recently. </li></ul>Present Perfect Tense Uses of the present perfect Would you like a coffee? No, thanks. I´ve just had one.
  4. 4. Present Perfect Tense <ul><li>2- Personal experiences : It is used to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning </li></ul>Have you ever been to Japan? No, I’ve never been there.
  5. 5. Present Perfect Tense <ul><li>3- It is used to express actions which started in the past and are still continuing in the present , the time period is not finished. </li></ul>I have lost my keys. (And I haven’t found them yet.)
  6. 6. Present Perfect + already and yet <ul><li>We often use the present perfect tense with already and yet . </li></ul>Already : Something happened before now or earlier than expected You can use already in positive sentences . Put already before the main verb. Yet : Until now. You can use yet in negative sentences and questions . Yet is usually at the end . Example : A) Have you done your homework yet? B) No, I haven’t done it yet. / Yes, I’ve already done it.
  7. 7. Present Perfect + for and since <ul><li>To talk about actions and states which started in the past and are still true now. </li></ul><ul><li>- How long have you lived in Granada? </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve lived in Granada since 1990 / for 20 years . </li></ul><ul><li>(I live in Granada now.) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Present Perfect or Past Simple <ul><li>We use definite expressions with the Past simple tense: yesterday, last week, … ago, etc, while we don’t use definite time expressions with the Present perfect tense. </li></ul><ul><li>I have been to France three times. </li></ul><ul><li>When did you go there? </li></ul><ul><li>I went there last summer. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Present Perfect or Past Simple <ul><li>Use the present perfect + how long? / for and since to talk about a period of time from the past until now. </li></ul><ul><li>How long have you been married? </li></ul><ul><li>I´ve been married since 1999 / for 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>(I am still married). </li></ul><ul><li>Use the past simple + how long? / for or from to to talk about a period of time in the past . </li></ul><ul><li>- How long were you married? </li></ul><ul><li>- I was married for 3 years / from 1995 to 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>(I am divorced now). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Present Perfect or Past Simple Present Perfect or Past Simple? Rose works in a factory. She ___________ (work) there for six months. Before that she ___________ (be) a waitress in a restaurant. She ___________ (work) there for two years but she ___________ (not/enjoy) it very much. A ___________ (you/ever/been) to Florida? B Yes, we ___________ (go) there two years ago. A ___________ (you/have) a good time? B Yes, it ___________ (be) great.
  11. 11. Present Perfect + Superlatives <ul><li>We often use a superlative with the present perfect. </li></ul>That is the smallest house I have ever seen . <ul><li>Make sentences as in the example. </li></ul><ul><li>It / noisy pub / I be to </li></ul><ul><li>He / boring person / meet </li></ul><ul><li>It / bad book / I / read </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>WILL / WON’T </li></ul><ul><li>(BE) GOING TO </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENT CONTINUOUS </li></ul>THE FUTURE
  13. 13. <ul><li>Predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Promises </li></ul><ul><li>Offers </li></ul><ul><li>Instant decisions </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>You will win the lottery… </li></ul>Will: Predictions
  15. 15. I will always love you.
  16. 16. <ul><li>I will take you sightseeing. </li></ul><ul><li>Shall I open the window? </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>I’ll have the steak, please </li></ul>Meat or fish? I will have the steak, please Meat or fish?
  18. 18. <ul><li>Predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions that you have planned before: future plans and intentions </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>It is going to rain </li></ul>(be) going to: predictions
  20. 20. <ul><li>She’s going to save money. </li></ul>(be) going to: future plans and intentions
  21. 21. <ul><li>Future arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>The sentence usually contains an adverb which refers to the future </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>I am going to the dentist tomorrow. </li></ul>18.30: Dentist
  23. 23. FIRST CONDITIONAL 2 You can also use the imperative or can . If you need my car, take it. If you miss the bus, you can get a taxi. 1 Use IF + PRESENT SIMPLE ... WILL/WON’T + INF to talk about a future situation and its consequence. If he wakes up early, we will go for a walk.
  24. 24. FIRST CONDITIONAL <ul><li>Complete the following sentences. </li></ul>1 I will go to the cinema if I .................... (have) time. 2 If it is foggy this evening, I .................... (stay) at home. 3 .................... (you, come) to a picnic next Sunday if it’s sunny? 4 If the road .................... (be) wet, (watch out).
  25. 25. SECOND CONDITIONAL 1 Use IF + PAST SIMPLE ... WOULD/WOULDN’T + INF to talk about an improbable / impossible or hypothetical situation and its consequence. If he woke up early, we would go for a walk. 2 Remember with can, use could + INF : If I had money, I could go on holiday. 3 With the verb be you can use were (instead of was) after I, he/she/it: If he was/were here, he’d help you If I were you….
  26. 26. SECOND CONDITIONAL Complete the following sentences. 1 If I could go anywhere in the world, …………….. 2 I would be very happy if …………….. 3 I’d buy a house if …………….. 4 If I had more free time ……………..
  27. 27. Have to / Don’t have to / Must / Mustn’t <ul><li>Use have to + INF to talk about rules and obligations. </li></ul><ul><li>She has to get up very early. </li></ul><ul><li>Use don’t have to + INF to say there is no obligation, or something is not necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>You don’t have to work on 11 June. </li></ul><ul><li>Use must + INF to talk about rules and obligations. </li></ul><ul><li>You must do your homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Use mustn’t + INF to say something is prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>You mustn’t smoke here. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Have to / Don’t have to / Must / Mustn’t Mustn’t and don’t have to have completely different meanings: You mustn’t go. = It’s prohibited. You don’t have to go. = You can come if you want, but it’s not necessary. Use must or have to when you say what you think is necessary, when you give your opinion : Its a fantastic film. You must see it or You have to see it. When you are not giving your opinion , use have to (not must): In many countries, men have to do military service. (This is not my opinion, it’s the law in those countries.)
  29. 29. Have to / Don’t have to / Must / Mustn’t <ul><li>Complete the following sentences with mustn’t or dont have to. </li></ul><ul><li>1 Gary gave me a letter to post. I __________ forget to post it. </li></ul><ul><li>2 There’s plenty of time. You __________ to decide now. </li></ul><ul><li>3 This is a valuable book. You __________ lose it. </li></ul><ul><li>4 A What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big? </li></ul><ul><li>B Well, it __________ be big - that’s not so important, but it must have a nice garden. </li></ul>
  30. 30. GIVING ADVICE <ul><li>Use should / shouldn’t + INF to give somebody advice. </li></ul><ul><li>You can also use ought to / ought not to + INF or If I were you, I would + INF. </li></ul><ul><li>A I’ve got a cold. What should I do? </li></ul><ul><li>B You should go to the doctor. / If I were you I’d go to the doctor. </li></ul>
  31. 31. GIVING ADVICE <ul><li>Let’s see if you know how to give advice. </li></ul><ul><li>1 I´m always late. </li></ul><ul><li>2 I don’t have many friends. </li></ul><ul><li>3 I eat too much chocolate. </li></ul><ul><li>4 I´m late for work and my car broke down. </li></ul>