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Present perfect rules


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Present perfect rules

  2. 2. Present Perfect Tense <ul><li>FORM: have / has + past participle </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative : I have seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>She has seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative : Have you seen the film before? </li></ul><ul><li>Has she seen the film before? </li></ul><ul><li>Negative : They have n’t seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>He has n’t seen the film before. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The formula of P.P.T. is this : Have ______________ Has Past participle + They have been to N.Y. She has eaten frog´s leg. You haven’t studied a lot.
  4. 4. past participle <ul><li>see saw seen </li></ul><ul><li>buy bought bought </li></ul><ul><li>go went gone </li></ul><ul><li>eat ate eaten </li></ul><ul><li>come came come </li></ul><ul><li>swim swam swum </li></ul>
  5. 5. Contracted forms <ul><li>I’ve </li></ul><ul><li>You’ve </li></ul><ul><li>He’s </li></ul><ul><li>She’s seen a ghost </li></ul><ul><li>it’s </li></ul><ul><li>We’ve </li></ul><ul><li>They’ve </li></ul>
  6. 6. Interrogative form <ul><li>You have traveled to Japan twice. (aff) </li></ul><ul><li>Have you traveled to Japan twice? </li></ul><ul><li>(interrogative) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Have you traveled to Japan twice? <ul><li>Yes, I have. </li></ul><ul><li>No, I haven’t. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Negative form <ul><li>I have visited the Taj Mahal. </li></ul><ul><li>I have .... visited the Taj Mahal. </li></ul><ul><li>I have NOT visited the Taj Mahal. </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t seen you for weeks ! </li></ul><ul><li>He hasn’t arrived home. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1- Recent events : It is used to describe recent events without a definite time . The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasize recentness: just, recently, lately </li></ul>Uses of the present perfect Why are they so happy? They have just won a prize so they are really pleased
  10. 10. JUST I have just finished my exercise. He has just had lunch.
  11. 11. <ul><li>2- Personal experiences : It is used to express personal experiences, there is not a definite time given. The time expressions ever and never are very often used with this meaning </li></ul>I have never been to Japan. Have you ever been there?
  12. 12. <ul><li>3- It is used to express actions that started in the past and continue to the present, the time period is not finished. We use for and since with this meaning. We use for with periods of time and since with points of time. </li></ul>I haven’t eaten since yesterday morning. I am really hungry I haven’t drunk anything for two days. I am terribly thirsty
  13. 13. Indefinite time <ul><li>We use PPT to indicate an action that happened in the past but we don’t know exactly when. ( indefinitive time ). The verb in Portuguese is in the past . </li></ul><ul><li>Eg.: </li></ul><ul><li>He has bought a car. ( When ? ) </li></ul><ul><li>They have been to Europe. ( When ? ) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Indefinite Time I have been to New York. ( When ?? ) She has eaten frog´s leg. ( When ?? )
  15. 15. An action started in the past <ul><li>We use PPT to indicate an action that began in the past and continues up to the present. (the verb in Portuguese is in the present). </li></ul><ul><li>Eg.: </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve lived in Limeira for three years. </li></ul><ul><li>She has studied English since January. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>I have worked here since last year. </li></ul><ul><li>( How long? ) </li></ul><ul><li>She has played tennis for 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>( How long? ) </li></ul>
  17. 17. SINCE FOR I have studied here since 1.999. I have studied here for 5 years.
  18. 18. PRESENT PERFECT + for, since Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its starting point , with since + a point in time . Since + a point in time: since this morning, since last week, since yesterday, since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o'clock .
  19. 19. SINCE I’ve ridden a bike since I was a child. I’ve ridden a bike since I was 12.
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>She has lived here since 1980. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have taught at this school since 1965. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice has been married since March 2nd. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have been at the hotel since last week. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Using the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now by considering its duration, with for + a period of time. For + a period of time: for six years, for a week, for a month , for hours, for two hours .
  22. 22. FOR They’ve been married for 1 year. They’ve dated for 3 years.
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>She has lived here for twenty years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have taught at this school for a long time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice has been married for three months. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have been at the hotel for a week. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>For and since can both be used with the past perfect. </li></ul><ul><li>Since can only be used with perfect tenses, for can also be used with the simple past </li></ul>
  26. 26. I went to school this morning. I have gone to school this morning. Which one is correct? ?
  27. 27. BOTH are correct !! I went to school this morning. ( now is more than midday, the morning has already finished !!) I have gone to school this morning. ( now is still morning, it hasn’t finished yet !!)
  28. 28. J ust E ver A lready N ever S ince F or Y et Pay attention to these words :
  29. 29. YET Have you taken a shower yet ? No, I haven’t taken it yet . INTERROGATIVE YET NEGATIVE
  30. 30. YET <ul><li>We use yet to show that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Has it stopped raining yet ? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you finished the homework y et ? </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve written the letter but I haven’t posted it yet . </li></ul>
  31. 31. ALREADY I have already taken a shower. AFFIRMATIVE ALREADY INTERROGATIVE
  32. 32. ALREADY <ul><li>We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to post the letter ! I’ve already posted it. </li></ul><ul><li>What time is Mark leaving ? He’s already gone . </li></ul>
  33. 33. Already refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time before now. It suggests that there is no need for repetition. I've already drunk three coffees this morning . (and you're offering me another one!) Don't write to John, I've already done it.
  34. 34. <ul><li>It is also used in questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Have you already written to John? </li></ul><ul><li>Has she finished her homework already ? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>already can be placed before the main verb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(past participle) or at the end of the sentence: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I have already been to Tokyo. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I have been to Tokyo already . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Yet is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the period of time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you met Judy yet ? </li></ul><ul><li>I haven't visited the Tate Gallery yet . </li></ul><ul><li>Has he arrived yet ? </li></ul><ul><li>They haven't eaten yet . </li></ul>Position: Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence .
  36. 36. Have you already eaten lobster? No, I haven’t eaten it yet . Have you eaten shrimp yet ? Yes, I have already eaten it. MD
  37. 37. EVER NEVER Have you ever ridden a horse? I have never ridden a horse.
  38. 38. EVER AND NEVER <ul><li>Have you ever studied German? No, I’ve n ever studied German. </li></ul><ul><li>Has she ever been to the USA ? No, she has never been to the USA </li></ul>
  39. 39. Have you ever seen a witch? No, I haven’t. I’ve never seen a witch.
  40. 40. Have you ever sung in a choir? Yes, I have.
  41. 41. <ul><li>The adverbs ever and never express the idea </li></ul><ul><li>of an unidentified time before now </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever visited Berlin? </li></ul><ul><li>'Ever' is used </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. in questions. Have you ever been to England? Has she ever met the Prime Minister? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><ul><ul><li>b. in negative questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haven't they ever been to Europe? Haven't you ever eaten Chinese food? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c. and in negative statements using the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pattern nothing.......ever , nobody.......ever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nobody has ever said that to me before. Nothing like this has ever happened to us. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>d. 'Ever' is also used with 'The first time.... It's the first time (that) I've ever eaten snails. This is the first time I've ever been to England. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>'Never' means at no time before now , and is the same as not ..... ever : </li></ul><ul><li>I have never visited Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>BE CAREFUL! You must not use never and not together: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I haven't never been to Italy. I have never been to Italy. </li></ul></ul></ul>Ever and Never are always placed before the main verb ( past participle )
  44. 44. And there are more words... Lately / Recently / for a while I haven’t seen him lately . She has practiced tennis recently . You haven’t tried it for a while .
  45. 45. ... and more , Once / twice / 3 times / 4 times / etc. We have fought once . He has traveled to Chicago twice . I have had a cold 3 times this year.
  46. 46. Have you ever eaten PRETZELS ? <ul><li>No. I’ve neve r eaten pretzels. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, I have already eaten pretzels. </li></ul><ul><li>No, I haven’t eaten pretzels. yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, I have just eaten pretzels. </li></ul>
  47. 48. To fail - failed - failed
  48. 49. To dance - danced - danced ballet
  49. 50. To drive - drove - driven
  50. 51. To have - had - had
  51. 52. To fly - flew - flown
  52. 53. To receive - d - d a love letter
  53. 54. Chess set To have - had - had
  54. 55. wallet To find - found - found
  55. 56. To lose - lost - lost Something valuable
  56. 57. Let’s practice <ul><li>I have ________ some muffins. </li></ul><ul><li>(eaten/ate) </li></ul>
  57. 58. <ul><li>They have ________ a nice cocktail. </li></ul><ul><li>(drunk/drank) </li></ul>
  58. 59. <ul><li>Mr Jones has ______ nice book. </li></ul><ul><li>(read/readen) </li></ul>
  59. 60. <ul><li>We’ve _________ to the circus. (gone/went) </li></ul>
  60. 61. <ul><li>He’s _________ under the tree. </li></ul><ul><li>(slept/sleeps) </li></ul>
  61. 62. <ul><li>Have you ______ seen a mummy? (ever/yet) </li></ul><ul><li>I’ve ______ eaten snails. </li></ul><ul><li>(never/ever) </li></ul><ul><li>Doug has _______ had his breakfast. (already/yet) </li></ul>
  62. 63. <ul><li>Have you finished your work ______? (already/yet) </li></ul><ul><li>Have you _______ called Susan? (already/yet) </li></ul><ul><li>Jack has ______ gone to work. (just/yet) </li></ul>
  63. 64. Make up sentences... <ul><li>NEVER </li></ul>
  64. 65. <ul><li>ALREADY - AFF. </li></ul>
  65. 66. <ul><li>EVER </li></ul>
  66. 67. <ul><li>NEVER </li></ul>
  67. 68. Simple Past or Present Perfect
  68. 69. <ul><li>Simple Past Completed events at a definite time in the past : </li></ul><ul><li>Yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>Last Saturday </li></ul><ul><li>Last night </li></ul><ul><li>Last weekend/week </li></ul><ul><li>Last month </li></ul><ul><li>Last semester </li></ul><ul><li>Last year </li></ul><ul><li>Present Perfect Events with a time period up to the present: </li></ul><ul><li>This weekend/week </li></ul><ul><li>This month </li></ul><ul><li>This year </li></ul><ul><li>Recently </li></ul><ul><li>Lately </li></ul><ul><li>Today </li></ul><ul><li>Once / twice / three times </li></ul>
  69. 70. Compare these sentences
  70. 71. <ul><li>Have you ever had a picnic with friends ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you have a picnic last weekend ? </li></ul>
  71. 72. <ul><li>Have you ever eaten snails ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you eat snails last night ? </li></ul>
  72. 73. <ul><li>Have you ever tried seafood ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you eat seafood yesterday ? </li></ul>
  73. 74. <ul><li>Have you ever eaten frog’s leg ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you eat frog’s leg last week ? </li></ul>
  74. 75. <ul><li>Have you ever had dinner at the restaurant with a friend ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you have dinner at the restaurant last night ? </li></ul>
  75. 76. <ul><li>Have you ever tried snails ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you try snails last weekend ? </li></ul>
  76. 77. <ul><li>Have you ever visited New York ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you visit New York last year ? </li></ul>
  77. 78. <ul><li>Have you ever eaten an American breakfast ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you eat an American breakfast in Los Angeles last vacation ? </li></ul>
  78. 79. <ul><li>Have you ever kissed someone in public ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you kiss someone in public last weekend ? </li></ul>
  79. 80. <ul><li>Have you ever been to a drive-in movie ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you go to a drive-in movie last Saturday ? </li></ul>
  80. 81. <ul><li>Have you ever driven an old car ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you drive an old car last month ? </li></ul>
  81. 82. Let’s Practice
  82. 83. Use: Present Perfect <ul><li>Have you ever had an American breakfast ? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever had eggs and bacon for breakfast ? </li></ul>
  83. 84. Use: Simple Past <ul><li>Did you visit Rio de Janeiro last year ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you travel to Rio on your last vacation ? </li></ul>
  84. 85. Use: Present Perfect <ul><li>Have you ever played a musical instrument ? </li></ul>
  85. 86. Use: Present Perfect and Simple Past <ul><li>Have you ever been to Rome ? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you visit Rome on your last vacation ? </li></ul>
  86. 87. Use: Simple Past <ul><li>Did you have a barbecue at home last holiday ? </li></ul>
  87. 88. Use: Present Perfect <ul><li>Have you ever fried an egg ? </li></ul>
  88. 89. Use: Simple Past <ul><li>Did you drive your father’s car yesterday ? </li></ul>
  89. 90. Use: Present Perfect <ul><li>Have you ever traveled by plane ? </li></ul>
  90. 91. Write down the sentences. Use present perfect. Example: Snoopy / climb / onto his house. Snoopy has climbed onto his house. 1 Brian / play / football 2 Susan / read / her new book 3 I / find / some money in the street 4 Mr and Mrs Baker / have / an accident
  91. 92. 5 Tom Davis / win / the volleyball match 6 Alison Brown / lose / the swimming match 7 Mr Martin / make / breakfast for the boys 8 The girls / bring / some wood for the fire 9 The Snows / buy / a van for their holidays 10 Mrs Black / wash / the dishes
  92. 93. SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  93. 94. 1. I ______________a great film yesterday. (see) 2. ________________a new car? (you ever buy) 3. Sue ______________the flu last winter. (have) 4. A few days ago we ______to his uncle. (drive) 5. They ____ bingo Wednesday afternoon. (play) 6. _________the bus to get there. (already take) 7. Last week my rabbit ___________away. (run)
  95. 96. 1 I haven't been to Italy____________ 10 years. 2 She has lived in Paris _____________January. 3 Jim has studied__________ three hours. Now he is tired. 4 My friend has been ill __________a long time. 5 I haven't seen him____________ Easter. 6 He hasn't had a holiday __________last summer.
  96. 97. 7 The pilots have been on strike___ two months. 8 We've had terrible weather ________Saturday. 9 I've known Tom __________1990. 10 He hasn't done any work _________a month. 11 We have had this car _________1998. 12 We have been here __________ two hours.
  97. 98. SITES <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  98. 99. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>