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Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
Depression Ppt
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Depression Ppt


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    Variation by age , sex and culture
    Accrding to Pollock, 3.5 million children < 19 are depressed
  • 2. Boys and Depression
    1) Boys more difficult to diagnose
    2)more reluctant to seek help
    3) young male behavior may elude accurate
    DSM4 diagnosis
  • 3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (i.e., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month),
    decrease or increase in appetite Insomnia or hypersomnia (excessive sleeping)
    nearly every day Feeling restless or sluggish to the point that others notice Fatigue or loss of energy
    Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt
    Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness
    Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal thoughts without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide
  • 4. Usually Depression diagnosis requires 4 of following
  • 5. Symptoms in boys
    Vary and may be less obvious than in women
    Dr. Pollock and other researchers suggests
  • 6. Other differences between sexes in depression
    Males under report
    Males don’t ruminate
    keep painful feelings
    Use action oriented strategy for resolution
    Dr. overdiagnosis of females
    Males withdraw and psychosomatic ills
    Risky behavior and impulsiveness
  • 7. Depression, an indistinct meaning
  • 8. Bipolar disorderFromWikipedia
    Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a category of mood disorders, or mood swings, defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood clinically referred to as mania or, if milder, hypomania. Individuals who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes or symptoms, or mixed episodes in which features of both mania and depression are present at the same time. These episodes are usually separated by periods of "normal" mood, but in some individuals, depression and mania may rapidly alternate, known as rapid cycling. Extreme manic episodes can sometimes lead to psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations. The disorder has been subdivided into bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymia, and other types, based on the nature and severity of mood episodes experienced; the range is often described as the bipolar spectrum.
  • 9. Major depression
    Major depressive disorderFromWikipedia,
    Major depressive disorder (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder) is a
    mental disorder characterized by a pervasive low mood, low self-esteem, and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. The term "major depressive disorder" was selected by the American Psychiatric Association for this symptom cluster under mood disorders in the 1980 version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) classification, and has become widely used since. The general term depression is often used to describe the disorder, but as it is also used to describe a depressed mood, more precise terminology is preferred in clinical and research use. Major depression is a disabling condition which adversely affects a person's family, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. In the United States, approximately 3.4% of people with major depression commit suicide, and up to 60% of all people who commit suicide have depression or another mood disorder.
  • 10. Dysthymia (chronic mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. It is considered a chronic depression, but with less severity than major depressive disorder. This disorder tends to be a chronic, long-lasting illness.[1] Dysthymia is a type of low-grade depression. Harvard Health Publications states that, “the Greek word dysthymia means ‘bad state of mind’ or ‘ill humor’. As one of the two chief forms of clinical depression, it usually has fewer or less serious symptoms than major depression but lasts longer.” Harvard Health Publications says, “at least three-quarters of patients with dysthymia also have a chronic physical illness or another psychiatric disorder such as one of the anxiety disorders, drug addiction, or alcoholism”. The Primary Care Journal says that dysthymia “affects approximately 3% of the population and is associated with significant functional impairment”. Harvard health Publications says: "The rate of depression in the families of people with dysthymia is as high as 50% for the early-onset form of the disorder." "Most people with dysthymia can't tell for sure when they first became depressed
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Causes
  • 17. Organic
    Internal or biological
    Due to imbalance of neurotransmitters
    To maintain levels of these chemicals, meds may be required
    An example of medication for organic depression would be SSRI ( selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
    Paxil, Zoloft, Prozac
  • 18.
  • 19. Societal Disconnection
    External: Life’s stresses affect serotonin levels
    Examples are trauma, illness, loss and exercise
    In boys depression may be affected by early disconnection
    Boy code
    Gender straitjacketing
  • 20. Relationship related depression
    Also external
    Poor social support
    Tenuous family connections
  • 21. explanation of organic ( Internal)
    A change in electrical potential between cells
    Dopamine, norepinephrine
    Transfer between cells and broken down by MAO
    People vary in MAO levels, so some need higher transmitter levels
    Type R
    May need need more chemical transmission
  • 22. Another Theory
    There may be differences in brain receptors and their levels of stimulation required
    This may exist for many types of neuroreceptors
    Some may have small numbers of D2 and D4 dopamine receptors
    Excitement may be needed to increase dopamine levels in low numbered folks