DEPRESSION AND MALES(Pollock,W) Variation by age , sex and culture Accrding to Pollock, 3.5 million children < 19 are depressed
Boys and Depression 1) Boys more difficult to diagnose 2)more reluctant to seek help 3) young male behavior may elude accurate DSM4 diagnosis
Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (i.e., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), decrease or increase in appetite Insomnia or hypersomnia (excessive sleeping) nearly every day Feeling restless or sluggish to the point that others notice Fatigue or loss of energy Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal thoughts without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide
Usually Depression diagnosis requires 4 of following
Symptoms in boys Vary and may be less obvious than in women Dr. Pollock and other researchers suggests
Other differences between sexes in depression Males under report Males don’t ruminate keep painful feelings Use action oriented strategy for resolution Dr. overdiagnosis of females Males withdraw and psychosomatic ills Anger Risky behavior and impulsiveness
Bipolar disorderFromWikipedia Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a category of mood disorders, or mood swings, defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood clinically referred to as mania or, if milder, hypomania. Individuals who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes or symptoms, or mixed episodes in which features of both mania and depression are present at the same time. These episodes are usually separated by periods of "normal" mood, but in some individuals, depression and mania may rapidly alternate, known as rapid cycling. Extreme manic episodes can sometimes lead to psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations. The disorder has been subdivided into bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymia, and other types, based on the nature and severity of mood episodes experienced; the range is often described as the bipolar spectrum.
Major depression Major depressive disorderFromWikipedia,
Major depressive disorder (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive low mood, low self-esteem, and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. The term "major depressive disorder" was selected by the American Psychiatric Association for this symptom cluster under mood disorders in the 1980 version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) classification, and has become widely used since. The general term depression is often used to describe the disorder, but as it is also used to describe a depressed mood, more precise terminology is preferred in clinical and research use. Major depression is a disabling condition which adversely affects a person's family, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. In the United States, approximately 3.4% of people with major depression commit suicide, and up to 60% of all people who commit suicide have depression or another mood disorder.
Dysthymia (chronic mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. It is considered a chronic depression, but with less severity than major depressive disorder. This disorder tends to be a chronic, long-lasting illness. Dysthymia is a type of low-grade depression. Harvard Health Publications states that, “the Greek word dysthymia means ‘bad state of mind’ or ‘ill humor’. As one of the two chief forms of clinical depression, it usually has fewer or less serious symptoms than major depression but lasts longer.” Harvard Health Publications says, “at least three-quarters of patients with dysthymia also have a chronic physical illness or another psychiatric disorder such as one of the anxiety disorders, drug addiction, or alcoholism”. The Primary Care Journal says that dysthymia “affects approximately 3% of the population and is associated with significant functional impairment”. Harvard health Publications says: "The rate of depression in the families of people with dysthymia is as high as 50% for the early-onset form of the disorder." "Most people with dysthymia can't tell for sure when they first became depressed
Organic Internal or biological Due to imbalance of neurotransmitters Serotonin To maintain levels of these chemicals, meds may be required An example of medication for organic depression would be SSRI ( selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) Paxil, Zoloft, Prozac
Societal Disconnection External: Life’s stresses affect serotonin levels Examples are trauma, illness, loss and exercise In boys depression may be affected by early disconnection Shame Boy code Gender straitjacketing
Relationship related depression Also external Poor social support Tenuous family connections rejection
explanation of organic ( Internal) A change in electrical potential between cells Dopamine, norepinephrine Serotonin Transfer between cells and broken down by MAO People vary in MAO levels, so some need higher transmitter levels Type R Alcoholic Anxious May need need more chemical transmission
Another Theory There may be differences in brain receptors and their levels of stimulation required This may exist for many types of neuroreceptors Some may have small numbers of D2 and D4 dopamine receptors Excitement may be needed to increase dopamine levels in low numbered folks